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Climate Change Adaptation in Pacific Countries: Fostering Resilience and Improving the Quality of Li

I Implementing Climate Change Adaptation in Rural Areas and Communities Implementing Climate Change Adaptation Interventions in Remote Outer Islands of the Pacific Island RegionBackgroundMethodologyImplementing Climate Change Adaptation Activities in Pacific Outer IslandsManaging Marine Resources in the Northern Group of the Cook IslandsProviding Clean Drinking Water to Outer Island Communities in KiribatiProtecting Low-Lying Atolls in the Marshall IslandsAugmenting Food Security in the Islands of TuvaluDiscussionAdding New Technology and New Knowledge to Traditional PracticesMeeting the High Cost of Climate Change Interventions in Outer IslandsEffective Communication and Addressing the Required Behavioural ChangeCustomising Development Indicators for Outer IslandsConclusionReferencesCustomary Land and Climate Change Induced Relocation—A Case Study of Vunidogoloa Village, Vanua Levu, FijiIntroductionMethodFocus of Vunidogola RelocationDynamics of Land, Identity and AdaptationThe Cultural-Spiritual Dimension of ResettlementAdaptation Limits—From a Governance and Funding PerspectiveCommunity CohesionAwareness and MonitoringConclusionReferencesClimate Change and Migration in the Maldives: Some Lessons for Policy MakersThe Maldives: Geographic, Demographic and Climate Change IssuesResearch Design, Methodology, and Data Collection and AnalysisResults and Key Findings(1) Population consolidation and internal migration are likely to continue(2) Migration is experienced as positive adaptation to change(3) Responding to aspirational pursuits can influence migration outcomes(4) The special role and promise of expansive education(5) Environmental change makes government planning a critical success factor(6) Waste, infrastructure and environmental management(7) Sharing expertise, lessons learned and best practicesDiscussionPolicy RecommendationsConcluding SynthesisResearch Limitations and Future ResearchReferencesII Climate Change Adaptation, Resilience and Hazards Climate Change and Extreme Weather Events: The Mental Health ImpactIntroductionExperiences During an Extreme Weather EventExperiences During RecoveryPosttraumatic Growth.Main LessonsLimitationsProspects for Projects that Educate About Extreme Weather EventsReferencesPreparing for Better Livelihoods, Health and Well-Being—A Key to Climate Change AdaptationIntroductionMethodConcurrent Convergence Parallel Triangulation DesignResultsSample CharacteristicThemes that Emerged in Survey, Interviews and FGDDiscussionClimate Change Impact and Adaptation ModelPreparing Kanokupolu, ‘Ahau, Tukutonga, Popua and Manuka to AdaptLimitationsAudience Benefit from the ModelConclusionLesson LearntBetter Livelihood, Health and Well-Being—A Key to Climate Change AdaptationModel ProductionGod Scriptures FulfilledCommunity-Based AdaptationFuture ResearchReferencesClimate-Friendly Adaptation Strategies for the Displaced Atoll Population in YapIntroductionClimate Stressors for MicronesiaCultivating Success Through Context-Specific Climate-Smart Adaptation StrategiesDiscussionChallenges and ConstraintsConclusionFuture ProspectsReferencesIntegrating Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation in Vanuatu: The Art and Practice of Building Resilience to HazardsIntroductionMethodologyA Networking System Relying on CCA and DRR Interconnections to Build ResilienceInstitutionalised Networking StructureSocial Networking ProcessesEstablishment of Legal Foundations Supporting the Networking SystemBuilding Capacities to Process CCA and DRR Information and Expertise into Knowledge for Resilience-BuildingCyclone Pam Preparedness and Management: An Example of Effective Resilience-Building Based on the Integration of Climate Change and Disaster RisksIntegrating CCA, DRR and Resilience-Related Sustainable Development for More Effective DMThe Particular Case of the Vanuatu Food Security and Agriculture ClusterConclusionReferencesResponse of Marginopora vertebralis (Foraminifera) from Laucala Bay, Fiji, to Changing Ocean pHIntroductionMethodsSample CollectionGrowth AssessmentsResultsSeawater ChemistryGrowth in M. vertebralisOther ObservationsDiscussionConclusionsFuture Research TopicsReferencesThe Role and Capacity of Government in a Climate Crisis: Cyclone Pam in VanuatuIntroductionTropical Cyclone PamRecovery Coordination and Management for Cyclone PamVanuatu’s Disaster Risk GovernanceApproaches to Disaster Risk Governance in Vanuatu for TC PamWay ForwardLesson 1: Integrating responses across sectors and groupsLesson 2: Integrating risk into formal and informal disaster risk governanceLesson 3: Integrating multiple knowledges for effective DRRConclusionReferencesResponse and Adaptation to Climate Change in the South China Sea and Coral SeaIntroductionData and MethodsResults and DiscussionResponses of the Marine Environment in the SCS and CS to Climate ChangeSea Surface Temperature (SST)Sea Surface Salinity (SSS)Chlorophyll-aRelationship of Annual Chlorophyll-a Concentrations to SST and SSSReview of Sea Level Rise and Ocean AcidificationImpacts of and Adaptation to Climate Change in the SCS and CSConclusionReferencesDrought Modelling Based on Artificial Intelligence and Neural Network Algorithms: A Case Study in Queensland, AustraliaIntroductionTheoretical FrameworkStandardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration IndexArtificial Neural NetworkMaterials and Methods Study Regions and Climate DataANN Model DevelopmentStatistical Evaluation of Model PerformanceResults and DiscussionConclusionReferencesAdapting Climate Change Projections to Pacific Maritime Supply ChainsIntroduction and Contribution to LiteraturePacific Climate Change Projections and Scenario AssumptionsClimate Change Implications for Pacific Maritime Supply ChainsImplications for Maritime Supply ChainsProposing a Tool and Screening Criteria to Resolve Stakeholder UncertaintyConclusionsReferencesClimate Change Adaptation in Pacific Countries: Fostering Resilience Through Gender EqualityIntroductionObjectivesRationaleResearch MethodologyLimitationsFindingsCountry Case StudiesRepublic of the Marshall IslandsSamoaVanuatuProject ReviewDiscussionPolicyInstitutional FrameworkImplementation and PracticeKnowledge ManagementWomen’s Participation and LeadershipNext StepsConclusionReferencesUrban Resilience to Climate-Related Disasters: Emerging Lessons from Resilience Policy and Practice in Coastal Tourism CitiesIntroductionThe Need for this ResearchMethodsResultsThe Nature of Extreme Weather EventsExposureSensitivityCapacity Building and ResilienceDiscussionConclusionReferencesCoastal Erosion Monitoring on Ouvea Island (New Caledonia): Involving the Local Community in Climate Change AdaptationIntroductionBackgroundMethodologyLimitations and ConstraintsDeveloping and Disseminating Acquired KnowledgeConclusionReferencesIII Information, Communication, Education and Training on Climate Change Towards a Mega-Pacific Islands Education Curriculum for Climate Adaptation Blending Traditional Knowledge in Modern CurriculumIntroductionClimate Change: Traditional Knowledge, Modern Science, and PerceptionsChallenges and Opportunities for a Pacific Islands Climate Adaptation CurriculumTraditional Knowledge: Pedagogical Medium and Thematic ContentPacific Islands Climate Adaptation Education AttemptsMethodologyLimitationsDiscussionConclusionsReferencesDynamic Adaptive Management Pathways for Drinking Water Security in KiribatiIntroductionAim of this ProjectThe Capacity Building ApproachKiribati Outer Island Domestic Water SuppliesClimate AnalysisTemperature IncreaseRainfall IncreaseSea Level RiseImpact of Climate Change on Water ResourcesIncrease Water SupplyReduced Water SupplyReduced Water QualityIncreased Water DemandResponding Using the Dynamic Adaptive Management Pathways (DAMP) ApproachOutcomesConclusionReferencesBehind the Lens: First-Hand Images and Videos Collected by Communities That Document the Impact of Climate Change in Milne Bay, PNGIntroductionMethodologyTarget CommunitiesEquipmentActivitiesGender EvaluationPreliminary Results: Getting (or Not) Behind the LensNext StepsA Case for Formal Education in the Technical, Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Sector for Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction in the Pacific Islands RegionIntroductionMethodologyLimitationsThe Pacific Policy Context—CCA and DRM/DRR LinkagesThe Global Policy Context—A Call for Capacity BuildingThe National Policy ContextRegional Accreditation of Qualifications—The Current SituationAn Illustration of the Capacity Problems—A Case Study of the Federated States of MicronesiaA Community Focused ApproachLinkages with Economic DemandsConcluding RemarksReferencesAuthor BiographiesPiecing Together the Adaptation Puzzle for Small Island StatesIntroductionSpecial Challenges for Small IslandsMain Climate Impacts for Island States Sea-Level RiseOcean Acidification, Tropical Storms and Coral ReefsWater Availability and Food ProductionImportant Data and Research Gaps for Robust Impact AnalysisSpecial Case for AdaptationA Regional Database for Science-Based AdaptationConceptMain Components of the Database Framework High-Resolution Climate and Impact DataSocio-economic Data, Livelihood ProfilesVulnerability Hot-SpotsAdaptation: Requirements, Costs and Options as well as Limits, Barriers and Potential Residual DamagesSummary and ConclusionsReferencesUsing Modelling Outputs to Inform Coastal Climate Change Adaptation Studies: Practical Tips for Adaptation Planners and ScientistsIntroductionEvolution in Mapping Coastal Climate Change ImpactsChallenges in the Interpretation of Model OutputsNot Enough Information—OversimplificationToo Much InformationDefaulting to the Worst CaseDiscussion and Suggested Approach to Coastal Adaptation PlanningLimitations of AssessmentConclusionsReferencesLifelong Learning (LLL) for Energy Practitioners in Small Island Developing States (SIDS): The Pivotal Role of Education in Energy Efficiency and Demand Side ManagementIntroductionSIDS and Energy IssuesEnergy Access: A Major Island IssueEnergy SecurityEnergy Efficiency and DSM ConceptsConclusion from Previous AssessmentImportance of EE and DSM Education for Energy PractitionersDesirable Features of an EE and DSM LLL Course for SIDSEE as an Online Lifelong Learning Course The Need for Lifelong Learning (LLL)Mode of Information DeliveryIssues and Challenges in EE EducationContextualisationCourse StructureUnavailability of Books and Learning MaterialsThe Need for Competent Teachers/TrainersOvercoming Barriers Through Global CooperationConclusionReferencesIV Trends on Climate Change AdaptationBeekeeping as Pro-forest Income Diversification in Solomon IslandsForests of Solomon IslandsImpacts of Poor Forestry Management and Climate ChangeNRDF’s Forest for Life Programme: Rationale and MethodsBeekeeping in Solomon IslandsBeekeeping as a Pro-forest Income Diversification OptionThe Katazo Honey Farmers Network: “Turning Your Backyards into a Golden Spring”Boeboe Village Has a More Challenging PathThe Role of Women’s Savings ClubsConclusionReferencesCoupling Disaster and Financial Management to Reduce Vulnerability: Challenging the Traditional Samoan Mindset, Experiences from the CommunityIntroductionSamoa and Its TraditionsClimate Change in SamoaRecent Natural Disasters and Their Impacts on SamoaAdaptation Programs in Samoa and the Role of the GovernmentThe ADRA/PACAM Project—Community Disaster Management and LivelihoodDeveloping Community Action Plan and Village Disaster and Climate Risk Management Plans (VDCRM)Enhancing Livelihoods and Improved Financial and Marketing Literacy of the More Vulnerable Lower Income HouseholdsDiscussionConclusions and Prospects—Applying the LearningReferencesCoastal Climate Adaptation at the Local Level: A Policy Analysis of the Gold CoastIntroductionCoastal Climate Adaptation Best PracticesCoastal Management and Climate Adaptation Frameworks on the Gold CoastEvaluation of Gold Coast Coastal Climate Adaptation PoliciesQueensland Coastal Management PlanOcean Beaches StrategyGold Coast Planning SchemeDiscussionConclusionsReferencesCoastal Environments Under a Changing Climate—What If Resilience Building Is Not Enough?BackgroundUnderstanding and Assessing VulnerabilityTreatment of Risks Through ResilienceNatural Environment Climate Change Adaptation ToolkitTriggers for Future Action and Limits of Acceptable ChangeLimitations and ConstraintsConclusionsReferencesClimate Change Adaptation in the Pacific: Setting-Up Priorities in the Health SectorIntroductionClimate Change and the Health Sector: An Ignored ThreatSome Priorities and Action NeededConclusionsReferences

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