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Concurrent Convergence Parallel Triangulation Design

This study used an integrated mixed method design that was model generating. Data from both quantitative and qualitative studies were converged and then merged. For the quantitative study, information was collected on the impact of climate change on livelihoods, health and well-being among Tongans age 15-75 via a self-administered questionnaire. The survey was administered by local villagers, who were trained by the researcher in the local language in order to facilitate the data collection processes. This ensured information and perception bias were minimized.

Concurrent with the quantitative study, qualitative studies were also implemented. Information was gathered via: in-depth interviews (IDI), information interview (II) and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Documents from the government, NGOs, international and regional organisations were also collected for supplementary information. After the completion of the data collection, data were then translated into English and analysed using a Computer-Assisted Quantitative and Qualitative Data Analysis Software Packaging (CAQQDASP), by the researcher for validity and reliability (Havea et al. 2016; Creswell and Plano Clark 2007, 2011).

This type of mixed method design is called “Concurrent Convergence Parallel Triangulation Design” because data is collected over the same timeframe (concurrent), and merged using convergence design, then it is equally weighted (parallel) and multiple methods were employed to examine same issues (triangulation). All efforts have been put into minimizing bias in this study. The result is that a model was formulated: ‘impact and adaptation’, that would help these communities make more effective choices in their sustainable efforts in future (Havea et al. 2016; Creswell and Plano Clark 2007, 2011).

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