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Sample Characteristic

A random sampling framework from the Department of the Statistics of the Government of Tonga (GOT) was used to recruit 460 participants aged 15-75 from five coastal communities in Tongatapu, Tonga: Kanokupolu—provided 8.7% (40), ‘Ahau—11.3% (52), Tukutonga—16.7% (77), Popua—53.5% (246) and Manuka— 9.8% (45), (see Fig. 5.1). By gender and age, the study recruited more women (53%) than men (47%). The studied population were adults with a median age of 25-34 (15.7%), (see Fig. 5.2). This study has also benefitted greatly from the National Capacity Self-Assessment (NCSA) project to review the Multilateral Environmental Agreement (MEA) on three Rio conventions: United Nation Convention on Biological Diversity, United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change and

Sample population pyramid

Fig. 5.2 Sample population pyramid: gender and age

United Nation Convention to Combat Desertification, using 35 cases of directors, managers, finance analysts, environmentalists, urban planners, project coordinators, legal advisors, inter alia in Tonga (Havea et al. 2016; Havea 2014).

Themes that Emerged in Survey, Interviews and FGD

Several themes emerged from careful review of the transcripts and documents. Five major themes were identified and described for their climate change impact, mitigation and adaptation importance. These themes were related to the participants perceived negative impact on their livelihoods, health and well-being and adaptation. These five themes are: (1) mitigation policies, (2) modulating factors, (3) impacting factors, (4) impact on livelihood, health and well-being and (5) climate change adaptation. The themes were used to construct the impact and adaptation model. Based on the theory and ideas that were grounded in the data, such as survey, interviews and FGD, codes were generated into themes and then label as project items and linked them into one another (QSR International 2014; Welsh 2002; Wiltshier 2011; Wong 2008; Zamawe 2015; Ozkan 2004; Bazeley 2007). The result of that is described in the discussion below.

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