Main Differences Between Talent Management in NFPs and MNCs
There is very little literature on TM in NFPs, so to draw out the differences between them and the more frequently studied MNCs, we derive the characteristics of TM in the NFPs from our case studies and compare that with the existing academic literature on TM in MNCs.
Comparison of TM in MNCs and NFPs
For such comparisons, we follow the same structure in which we presented our case studies: how organisations define talent and talent management; their approach to attracting, developing and retaining talents; their use of existing technology to facilitate TM; and finally we discuss the future and challenges for TM.
Definition of Talent and TM
As noted, organisations can take either an inclusive or an exclusive approach to managing talent: Do a ‘gifted’ few possess talent or does everyone possess developable strengths [18: 1779]? Thus, there is a controversial side to managing talents. There are few, if any, objective criteria for defining who is a talent and who is not. Indeed, identification as ‘talent’ may be a self-fulfilling prophesy. This subjectivity raises ethical and moral questions, especially in organisations that promote egalitarianism . Managers may also need to take into account the prevailing culture of the organisation and the views of employees. As a result, some organisations engage in TM practices but do not label them as such [20: 1841]. We found evidence of both inclusive and exclusive approaches to TM in our cases: UN organisations took an exclusive approach, whereas MSF wanted an inclusive approach.