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NFPs rarely have the latest e-enabled support systems. Hence, they are not able to exploit employee and performance data. We noted, for example, that UNICEF cannot track the progress of NETI participants and MSF uses Excel sheets for performance appraisals. MNCs tend to have well-developed systems to track employee performance as well as the career progression of talents.

Future of TM

MNCs have apparently been ahead of NFPs in engaging in the ‘war for talent’ [21]. However, we expect to see an increase in the popularity and adoption of TM in the NFPs: they clearly have less experience than MNCs, and some of our interviewees felt they could help reduce this gap by learning about TM philosophy, tools and practice from the MNCs.

Since both types of organisations operate in many countries, they both seem to accept the need for a global component to existing TM. MNCs have an advantage here, given the cost constraints in NFPs. For example, MSF persists with local hiring partly because it reduces costs, even though they realise the advantages of developing talent through expatriation and other forms of international mobility. This is less of an issue for MNCs’ GTM practices. MNCs are utilising and experimenting with different forms and sources of talent such as self-initiated expatriates (see [25]), skilled migrants [26, 27], inpatriates [28, 29] and short-term assignees [30].

Challenges of TM

These are early days of TM in NFPs. One of the key challenges is to convince stakeholders of the long-term benefits. Another is to overcome resistance from powerful organisational members who have grown used to existing ways of working. A third challenge is to establish objective criteria for identifying, developing, and rewarding talent. Unlike MNCs, NFPs have to face a greater degree of complexity, sometimes political complexity. One challenge for MNCs is to manage the jealousy and lack of cooperation from those not included in the talent pool [31], but this may be less of an issue in some of the governmental and intergovernmental organisations where the identification of talent depends on the results of rigorous examinations open to all.

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