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Abstract In this chapter, we introduce the background of our study, followed by the research motivations and objectives. Then, we introduce the publicly available datasets used to evaluate our proposed methods. Finally, we summarize our contributions and give the structure of the report in the end.
Clinical Problems: A Case Study on Autoimmune Diseases
Autoimmune diseases (AD) occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissues, which can be organ-specific or systemic. Depending on the type, an autoimmune disease can affect one or many different types of body tissue. It can also cause abnormal organ growth and changes in organ function. They are prevalent diseases affecting a large number of human beings. There are more than eighty different types of AD such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma and autoimmune hepatitis. The common autoimmune diseases are introduced as follows:
© Springer International Publishing AG 2017 X. Xu et al., Cellular Image Classification, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-47629-2_1
Fig. 1.1 Patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (Courtesy of Google Images)
Fig. 1.2 Patient with rheumatoid arthritis (Courtesy of Google Images)
For instance, Fig. 1.1 shows the patient with SLE showing inflammation and vasculitis, while Fig. 1.2 shows a hand of the patient with rheumatoid arthritis.
The cause of autoimmune disease is still not completely understood. There are many theories about what triggers autoimmune diseases including bacteria or virus, drugs, chemical irritants, environmental irritants, etc. The one whose family member with an AD will be more susceptible to developing one. ADs affect many parts of the body such as joints, muscles, skin, red blood cells, blood vessels, connective tissues and endocrine glands. Meanwhile, many of ADs have similar symptoms, which are fatigue, fever and general malaise. It makes them difficult to diagnose. Hence, ADs have high mortality rates.
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