Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope
Optical scanning confocal microscope has gained decades of continuous improvement for its high resolution and penetration capability into tissues. In 1957, Marvin Minsky clarified the basic principles of scanning confocal microscopy techniques for the first time. But it did not really become available in scientific research until 1985 with the rapid development of computer, laser and image processing technology. Wij- naedts Van Resaint first succeeded in obtaining a cross-section of the optical probe with a fluorescent labeled biological material, demonstrating confocal fluorescence microscopy has an ability to reject defocused light to obtain three-dimensional image of biological samples. Within the next two years, Oxfordshire company, which was acquired by Bio-Rad Laboratories later, produced the first commercial laser scanning confocal microscopy, which became widely used in many fields. With high resolution, it implemented observation of biological processes within living tissue. Confocal microscopy has the ability to make chromatography, obtaining fluorescence image of internal fine structure of cells, or observing physiological signals and changes in cell morphology Ca2+, pH value, the membrane potential at the subcellular level, etc. These advantages make laser scanning confocal microscope a powerful tool for clinical diagnosis, biomedical biochemistry, cell biology, reproductive biology and neurology [11, 19, 21, 23, 24, 34, 37, 42, 46, 50, 57, 60].