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  • • Access to upper secondary education is barely 37 %. Drop out and absentee rates are high in regions where school aged children are in the workforce.
  • • There are many teachers with official certification, but such certification does not necessarily mean that they are indeed qualified. Many teachers are prepared by the system, but there is often a lack of commitment to the system once they are prepared.
  • • The majority of teachers work two shifts so there is little time for planning and design of teaching-learning strategies. Nor does such a situation facilitate the professional development of in-service teachers. Contracting teachers is sometimes the result of political party affiliations rather than professional competence.
  • • Special programs do not reach all regions.


  • • Preparation programs do not last long given the institutional weakness of the system.
  • • Teacher compensation policies do not permit the attraction of the strongest talents to the teaching profession.
  • • There are limited resources for teacher preparation and purchase of adequate materials.
  • • Some teacher preparation institutions do not have human resources with backgrounds adequate for carrying out their programs nor the resources and infrastructure required to offer good quality programs.
  • • There is little integration of Information and Communication Technologies into the teaching-learning process. Thus the technological gap between rich and poor is deepening.
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