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Modern biotechnology : defining and solving human problems

WHAT IS BIOTECHNOLOGY?BIOTECHNOLOGY IS INHERENTLY INTERDISCIPLINARYBIOTECHNOLOGY IS MISUNDERSTOODMILESTONES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN BiotechnologyEARLY BIOTECHNOLOGYTHE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF REVOLUTIONARY BIOTECHNOLOGIESRecombinant DNA Technologies—Advent of Gene Cloning and Genetically Modified OrganismsDNA Sequencing—Advent of the Genomics EraOrganismal Cloning—Advent of Stem Cell and Transgenic Animal BiotechnologiesCRISPR—Revolutionizing Genome EditingWICKED PROBLEMSTHE NATURE OF WICKED PROBLEMSTHE NATURE OF SYSTEMSBRIEF SUMMARYBiological FoundationsBIOLOGICAL PARTSMEMBRANES AND OVERALL CELLULAR STRUCTUREINFORMATION FLOW WITHIN CELLSCentral Dogma and Biological ExceptionsProtein Production in Prokaryotes Versus EukaryotesGene RegulationExceptions to the Central Dogma of BiologyPROTEINS AS MOLECULAR MACHINESFunctional Protein CategoriesProtein StructureSTEM CELLSNaturally Occurring Stem CellsArtificially Derived Stem CellsMODERN TOOLS OF THE TRADEMAKING DNA—POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION AND CHEMICAL SYNTHESISRECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGIES AND GENE CLONINGMolecular Construction of Recombinant PlasmidsTransformation and Selection of Recombinant Bacterial ClonesCRISPR/Cas9DNA SEQUENCINGTraditional Terminator SequencingSequencing-by-SynthesisIDENTIFYING SPECIFIC BIOLOGICAL MOLECULESIdentifying DNA SequencesIdentifying TranscriptsIdentifying ProteinsTHE ‘OMIC TECHNOLOGIESGenomics, Transcriptomics, and ProteomicsInterplay between Reductionist and Holistic ApproachesBIOINFORMATICS AND COMPUTER MODELINGDNA and Protein Repositories and Associated ToolsComputer Modeling of SystemsBRIEF SUMMARYDiseaseTHE PROBLEM: DISEASEKINDS OF DISEASEInfectious DiseaseSimple Genetic Disorders and Complex Multifactorial DiseasesTHE ROLE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN UNDERSTANDING DISEASE CAUSATIONA Systems Approach to Understanding Disease CausationBETTER MEDICAL INTERVENTIONSMOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICSDiagnostic DevelopmentSignal Versus Target AmplificationTHERAPEUTICSEnhancing Efficacy and Decreasing ToxicityPurified Recombinant ProteinsMonoclonal AntibodiesGene TherapyRegenerative Medicine: Cell and Tissue ReplacementBiotechnology in Drug DiscoveryDISEASE PREVENTIONPrinciples of Immune Responses and VaccinationPassive VaccinationWhole Cell VaccinesAcellular Subunit VaccinesVaccine DevelopmentBiological Challenges to Vaccine DevelopmentBRIEF SUMMARYFood ProductionTHE PROBLEM: FOOD PRODUCTIONCURRENT AND FUTURE FOOD DEMANDSModern Industrialized AgricultureA Case for Biotechnology in AgricultureSAFER FOODSBIOSENSORSDisease-Resistant AnimalsBETTER CROPS AND LIVESTOCKUSE OF TRANSGENICS IN AGRICULTURECreating Transgenic CropsCreating Transgenic AnimalsBRIEF SUMMARYEnvironmental DegradationTHE PROBLEM: POLLUTIONBETTER ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORINGBIOREPORTERSBETTER ENVIRONMENTAL CLEAN-UPMICROBIAL BIOREMEDIATIONPHYTOREMEDIATIONBETTER LIQUID FUELSTHE NEED FOR BIOFUELSBIOETHANOLBIODIESELBRIEF SUMMARYDEFINING AND SOLVING PROBLEMSUNIFYING TOOLS AND STRATEGIESACTUALIZING BIOTECHNOLOGY’S POTENTIALTRUST-BUILDING IN THE PUBLIC SPHEREINTERDISCIPLINARY COLLABORATIONOvercoming Barriers to InterdisciplinarityBRIEF SUMMARY
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