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Agricultural wastes : characteristics, types, and management

PrefaceRecycling of Agricultural Wastes: Treatment and UsesIntroductionAW Produced in the Mediterranean Region: Qualitative and Quantitative CharacteristicsOlive Oil Mill Wastewaters (OMW)Wine WasteSwine WasteAnimal WasteRice StrawTechnologies for the Recycling of Agricultural Wastes in Intensive Crop Production Systems Developed so Far in the Mediterranean CountriesBasic Principles of the Composting ProcessLimitations of the Composting ProcessPolicy Issues for Agricultural Wastes in Europe and Mediterranean CountriesZeolites in Agricultural Waste Reuse ProcessesPhysical and Chemical Properties of ZeolitesOinoptiloliteZeolites for AW TreatmentZeolites in Composting ProcessesZeolites in Piggery Wastes TreatmentZeolite Combined with Organic ManureProduction of Adsorbents either Biosorbents or Pyrolized/Activated Carbons from Agricultural WastesOrganic Compounds (Dyes, Pesticides, Pharmaceuticals, Industrial Solvents) RemovalHeavy Metals and Other Ions RemovalProduction of Membranes from Agricultural WastesConclusionReferencesCurrent Utilization of Dairy Industry Co-ProductsCurrent Status of Major Dairy Streams Production and Their UtilizationMajor Applications of Whey PermeateAgricultural Applications of Whey PermeateLand SpreadingAnimal FeedChemical and Cosmetics Applications of Whey PermeateЗ.1. SolventsExopolysaccharidesBiosurfactantsMajor Food Applications of Whey PermeateLactose Characteristics and ApplicationsLactose Recovery ProcessesLactose DerivativesЗ.1. Lactic AcidLactuloseTagatoseGalactooligosaccharidesOther Lactose DerivativesNaturally Occurring OligosaccharidesNaturally Occurring PeptidesWhey Permeate As Substrate for Bacteriocin ProductionMinerals: A Need of Developing Feasible Desalination ProcessesWhey Permeate As a Fuel and Energy SourceBiodiesel and Renewable DieselBiohydrogenBiogas (Methane)BioethanolConclusion and Future DirectionsAcknowledgmentsReferencesThermochemical and Biochemical Conversion of Olive StonesIntroductionNon-energy Use of Olive StonesAdsorbentSource of Natural AntioxidantsFurfural ProductionXilooligosaccharide ProductionManufacture of Plastic MaterialsEnergy Use of Olive StonesEXTRACTIONThermochemical ConversionCombustionPyrolysisGasificationBiochemical PathwayOlive Stones PretreatmentHydrothermal Pretreatments: Liquid Hot Water (LHW) and Steam Explosion (SE)Dilute Sulfuric Acid Pretreatment (DSA)Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Pretreated CelluloseSugar FermentationConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencesPotential Use of Nut Agricultural BY-PRODUCTS IN POLYMER MATERIALS: A REVIEWIntroductionNutritional Value of NutsNut Agricultural by-ProductsRevalorisation of Nut by-Products in Polymer Materials as ReinforcementRevalorisation of Nut by-Products in Polymer Active Packaging as Bioactive Natural Product SourcesAntimicrobial and Antifungal Action of Nut By-ProductsAntioxidant action of Nut By-ProductsRecent Uses of Nut By-ProductsConclusionReferencesPerspectives on the Utilization of Rice Hull in Productive ProcessesINTRODUCTIONSilica Extraction from Rice HullChemical Processing Silica from Rice Hull: Alkaline LeachingNH4F Dissolution ProcessBiological ApproachApplications of Silica Derived from Rice HullSynthesis of Cements and Zeolites from Rice Hull AshSilica as Adsorbent and Support for CatalysisRice Hull FermentationMiscellaneous ApplicationsReferencesThe Use of Agricultural Residues: A TECHNICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC CHALLENGE for the BiorefineryThe Agricultural ResiduesChemical Composition of the Lignocellulosic BiomassCarbohydratesLigninMinor organic and inorganic componentsThe Heterogeneous Composition of the Agricultural WastesThe Biorefinery Concept: Need for a ChangeThe Replacement of Oil RefineriesThe Biorefinery PerspectiveThe Challenge of the Agricultural Wastes BiorefiningBenefits and Drawbacks of Agricultural Wastes as Biorefinery FeedstockThe Agricultural Wastes - Biorefinery ScenarioAcknowledgmentsReferencesValorization of Wastes from Industrial Processing of an Agricultural Product via Thermochemical Conversion ProcessesIntroductionExperimental SectionMaterialsKinetic Measurements of the Pyrolysis of Yerba Mate TwigsBench-Scale Pyrolysis ExperimentsCharacterization of the Pyrolysis Products Generated at the Different TemperaturesExperiments for Conversion of the Yerba Mate Twigs into Activated CarbonsResults and DiscussionKinetic Characterization of the Pyrolysis of the Yerba Mate TwigsEffect of the Temperature on Yields and Characteristics of the Pyrolysis ProductsConversion of the Yerba Mate Twigs into Activated CarbonsAcknowledgmentsReferencesAgricultural Solid Wastes in Aqueous Phase Dye Adsorption: A ReviewIntroductionClassification of DyesPotential Dye Pollutants and Its Toxicity EffectsDye Removal TechniquesDye AdsorptionFactors Affecting Adsorption of DyeInfluence of Solution pH on Dye AdsorptionInfluence of Initial Dye Concentration on Dye AdsorptionInfluence of Solution Temperature on Dye AdsorptionInfluence of Adsorbent Dosage on Dye AdsorptionInfluence of Presence of Salts on Dye AdsorptionKinetics of Dye AdsorptionLagergren Pseudo-First-Order and Pseudo-Second Order Kinetic ModelIntra-Particle Diffusion Kinetic Model and Mechanism of Solute AdsorptionEquilibrium Dye Adsorption IsothermsLangmuir Adsorption Isotherm ModelFreundlich Adsorption Isotherm ModelDye Adsorption Capacities of Various Agricultural Solid Waste AdsorbentsRice HuskSawdustSugarcane BagasseFruit WastePlant WasteBark MaterialConclusionReferencesCoffee Wastes As AdsorbentsHistory of CoffeeWastes in During Coffee SynthesisAdsorption ApplicationsReferencesApplications of Agricultural Wastes on Bio-hydrogen Production with Bacterial TreatmentsIntroductionFundamental TheoryExtracting Sugar from Agricultural WastesLignocelluloseThermostable Cellulolytic BacteriaGrowth MediumReduced Sugar in the SampleApproach and Introduction to Hydrogen ProductionBiological Effects of Ultrasound Taguchi Quality Engineering ExperimentActivation and Growth of Bacteria Strain T4Organism Growth Curve TestProduction of Reduced SugarGlucose Test of Reduced SugarMechanical and Biological EffectsCultivation of Hydrogen-Producing BacteriaUltrasound Irradiation ExperimentBiological EffectsTaguchi Method PlanningFactor Levels and Experimental DesignTaguchi Data AnalysisResults and DiscussionConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferences

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