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Non-energy Use of Olive Stones

Non-energy uses for olive stones have been reported in literature. Some of the most important are described below.

Adsorbent

The possibility of using olive stones as adsorbent, either directly [24] or transforming them into activated carbon [25, 26, 27, 28], has been investigated. Non-activated endocarps, finely divided, allow to separate heavy metals in wastewater. For example, in literature it can be found recoveries higher than 80% for Cr3+ and Cr6+ [29], approximately 90% for cadmium ions [30] and above 70% for Fe3+ [31]. In addition, olive stones have been reported as adsorbent for drin pesticides [32].

Source of Natural Antioxidants

The two-phase pomace is interesting to produce some natural compounds with high antioxidant power, such as hydroxytyrosol or 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol [33]. The treatment of olive endocarps with the so-called technique 'steam explosion' (operating at 200-235°C maintained for 2 minutes) allows to retrieve large amounts of hydroxytyrosol in the liquid hydrolysate [6], which has led to a patent currently under exploitation (Ref OEPM Spanish Patent. P200100346). Meanwhile, Cuevas et al. (2007) verified that when increasing the operational temperature from 190 to 225°C in the hot water treatment of olive stones, the amount of hydroxytyrosol, vanillin and syringic acid was increased by 48, 151 and 369%, respectively [34].

 
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