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Section 2.2 has shown cases where a prisoners’ dilemma situation could emerge because of a lack of communication between players or the absence of an overarching authority to guide players to the aggregate optimum: the outcomes may be optimal from the viewpoint of individual players (given their options and available information), but sub-optimal from an overall, aggregate perspective. Communication among the players via an overarching authority, through bargaining concepts or through external sources, such as IPCC Assessment Reports, but also newsletter, policy briefs, books, workshops and conferences, could subsequently help achieve a better aggregate outcome. In the context of climate change policy, such communication would for instance enhance the common knowledge of the players of the benefits and costs related to cooperation in a climate policy regime, which could create opportunities to jointly carry out greenhouse gas abatement actions that countries would not have carried out on their own.

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