Countries Take Their Positions During INC Negotiations
As explained above, international climate negotiations started by the end of the 1980s upon the initiative of the UNEP and WMO. Eventually, the INC negotiation process was established on 21 December 1990 through a decision, Resolution 45/212, of the UN General Assembly (UN 1990). It was scheduled that the INC would deliver a draft Convention text that would be ready for signature at the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, May-June 1992).
The INC held five negotiation sessions during 1991-1992 under the chairmanship of Mr Jean Ripert (France). In order to complete INC’s work, the discussion in the fifth and final round had to be continued in a resumed session. All UN members were invited to the INC sessions and almost from the outset of the negotiations, the priorities of the negotiating countries differed widely. These differences became particularly clear when discussing which countries could or should be held responsible for past greenhouse gas emissions and how this responsibility could or should be translated into concrete actions for these countries. Negotiation positions were also increasingly determined within country groups rather than by individual countries. The main groups and what positions they represented are briefly described below (see also Box 2.1 in Chap. 2).