Linguistic Mediation Was Needed
A need for linguistic mediation in the 2011 disaster can be shown empirically by the interview data in this case study. A considerable variety of topics were said to need this mediation, and these topics have been aggregated by the author into five main types: warning about the disaster; instructing people how to respond; developing situation awareness of the disaster; administering the disaster; supporting others through the disaster. This typology of mediation needs follows a broad temporal progression that maps onto the recognised phases of a disaster: pre-event, lasting only seconds or minutes; event, lasting about one week after onset; response, lasting about one month after onset; and recovery, lasting about one year after onset (WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific 2012, p. 58). That is to say that, generally speaking, warnings and instructions came in the early phases of the disaster, situation awareness was intensively required for the first month or so after onset, and administering and providing support for others became needed once the emergency has moved into the recovery phase. The data in Table 1, therefore, underscore that linguistic mediation was shown to be required at all phases of the 2011 disaster. Of course, it should be remembered that the various elements of this typology may not have followed such a smooth progression and may have occurred simultaneously, overlapped, and so on. It is hoped, though, that a loss of contextual detail is compensated for by easier analysis.