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Regional Trends

Specific Humidity

Annual and seasonal means and trends in region averaged SPH of six regions during the period of 1969-2012 are given in Table 1. Region averaged annual mean

Table 1 Mean and trends in surface specific humidity averaged over the six regions of India during the period of 1969-2012

Region

Annual

Winter

Summer

Monsoon

Post-monsoon

Mean

Trend

Mean

Trend

Mean

Trend

Mean

Trend

Mean

Trend

North-west

12.0

0.25a

6.9

0.25a

9.8

0.33a

18.1

0.22a

10.6

0.23a

Central

12.4

0.32a

8.0

0.30a

9.9

0.46a

18.0

0.22a

11.9

0.31a

East

15.5

0.20a

10.0

0.22a

15.1

0.28a

20.1

0.15a

15.1

0.18a

North-east

14.9

0.15a

9.4

0.16a

14.2

0.15a

19.5

0.19a

14.7

0.12a

West

14.5

0.19a

9.7

0.20a

14.2

0.22a

18.8

0.18a

13.8

0.20a

South

16.1

0.24a

13.4

0.25a

16.4

0.26a

17.6

0.19a

16.4

0.27a

While mean relative humidity values are in g/kg, trends are given in g/kg per decade. Trends statistically significant at the 95 % confidence level are marked ‘a’

SPH is the highest (16.1 g/kg) in south and the lowest (12.0 g/kg) in north-west. Annual SPH trends are statistically significant at the 95 % confidence level for all regions. The rate of change in region averaged annual SPH is the highest (+0.32 g/kg per decade) in central and lowest (+0.15 g/kg per decade) in north-east as shown in Fig. 4. It is clear from Table 1 that seasonal mean SPH values averaged over the six regions are the highest in south (winter, summer and post-monsoon) and in east (monsoon). Similarly, the lowest seasonal mean SPH values are in north-west (winter, summer and post-monsoon) and in south (monsoon). Seasonal trends in region averaged SPH are significantly positive for all the seasons and across all the six regions of India indicating overall rise in water vapour content over the country. However, the rate of increase of SPH is the highest over central India for all the seasons as shown in Fig. 4.

 
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