Desktop version

Home arrow Geography arrow Observed Climate Variability and Change over the Indian Region


Paleomonsoon records show that cold periods of the climatic history had winter like circulation, whereas warm periods were characterized by a strong summer monsoon flow. General inferences on climate of the Holocene (*10 ka) drawn from various proxy sources indicate a clear increasing trend in the monsoon since 10 ka. In general, there was a warm humid climate with frequent floods during 10-4.5 ka over the northern regions of the subcontinent. The Little Ice Age over the Tibetan Plateau was not cold as in mid latitudes.

The Asian region has a vast potential of historical evidences. However, systematic and collective efforts are needed to elaborate the possibility of extracting paleoclimate data from many parts of the region to assess climate variability better.

Acknowledgments The authors are grateful to ISRO-GBP for funding.


Allu, N.C., Tiwari, M., Yadava, M.G., Chi, N., Shen, C.-C., Belgaonkar, S.P., Ramesh, R. and, Laskar, A.H., 2014. Stalagmite 5 18 O variations in southern India reveal divergent trends of Indian Summer Monsoon and East Asian Summer Monsoon during the last interglacial. Quat. Int. 10-15. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2014.12.014

Bhattacharyya, A., Yadav, R.R., Borgaonkar, H.P. and, Pant, G.B., 1992. Growth-ring analysis of Indian tropical trees: dendroclimatic potential. Curr. Sci. 62, 736-741.

Borgaonkar, H.P., 1996. Tree Growth Climate Relationship and Long-Term Climate Change Over The Western Himalaya: A Dendroclimatic Approach,. Ph.D. Thesis, Univerisity of Pune, Pune- 411008.

Borgaonkar H.P., Sikder A.B and, Somaru Ram, 2010. High altitude forest sensitivity to the recent warming: A tree-ring analysis of conifers from Western Himalaya, India. Quat. Int. 236, 158166.

Borgaonkar, H.P., Sikder, A.B., Ram, S. and, Pant, G.B., 2010. El Nino and related monsoon drought signals in 523-year-long ring width records of teak (Tectona grandis L.F.) trees from south India. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 285, 74-84. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2009. 10.026

Buckley B. M, Palakit, K., Duangsathaporn, K., Sanguantham, P. and, Prasomsin, P., 2007. Decadal scale droughts over northwestern Thailand over the past 448 years: Links to the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean sectors. Clim. Dyn. 29, 63-71. doi:10.1007/s00382-007- 0225-1

Burns, S.J., Fleitmann, D., Mudelsee, M., Neff, U., Matter, A., and, Mangini, A., 2002. A 780-year annually resolved record of Indian Ocean monsoon precipitation from a speleothem from south Oman. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4434. doi:10.1029/2001JD001281

D’Arrigo, R.D., Jacoby Jr, G.. and, Krusic, P.J., 1994. Progress in dendroclimatic studies in Indonesia. Terr. Atmos. Ocean. Sci. 5.3, 349-363.

D’Arrigo, R.D., Wilson, R., Palmer, J., Krusic, P., Curtis, A., Sakulich, J., Bijaksana, S., Zulaikah, S. and, Ngkoimani, L.O., 2006. Monsoon drought over Java, Indonesia, during the past two centuries. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33. doi:10.1029/2005GL025465

Duan, K. and, Yao., T., 2003. Monsoon Variability in the Himalayas under the Condition of Global Warning. J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan 81, 251-257.

Enzel, Y., Ely, L.L., Mishra, S., Ramesh, R., Amit, R., Lazar, B., Rajaguru, S.N., Baker, V.R. and, Sandler, A., 1999. High-Resolution Holocene Environmental Changes in the Thar Desert, Northwestern India. Science (80-. ). 284, 125-128. doi:10.1126/science.284.5411.125

Govil, P. and, Naidu, P.D., 2010. Evaporation-precipitation changes in the eastern Arabian Sea for the last 68 ka: Implications on monsoon variability. Paleoceanography 25, 1-11. doi:10.1029/ 2008PA001687

Guhathakurta, P., Rajeevan, M., Sikka, D.R., Tyagi, A., 2014. Observed changes in southwest monsoon rainfall over India during 1901-2011. Int. J. Climatol. 35, 1881-1898. doi:10.1002/ joc.4095

Jacoby Jr, G.. and, D’Arrigo, R.D., 1990. Teak (Tectona grandis L.F.), A tropical species of large-scale dendroclimatic potential. Dendrochronologia 8, 83-98.

Kumar, P.K. and Ramesh, R., 2016. Revisiting reconstructed Indian monsoon rainfall variations during the last * 25 ka from planktonic foraminiferal S18O from the Eastern Arabian Sea.

Quaternary International.

Kessarkar, P.M., Purnachadra Rao, V., Naqvi, S.W.A. and, Karapurkar, S.G., 2013. Variation in the Indian summer monsoon intensity during the Bolling-Allerod and Holocene. Paleoceanography 28, 413-425. doi:10.1002/palo.20040

Kotlia, B.S., Singh, A.K., Joshi, L.M., Dhaila, B.S., 2015. Precipitation variability in the Indian Central Himalaya during last ca. 4,000 years inferred from a speleothem record: Impact of Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and Westerlies. Quat. Int. 371, 244-253. doi:10.1016/j.quaint. 2014.10.066

Kotlia, B.S., Singh, A.K., Joshi, L.M., Dhaila, B.S., 2014. Precipitation variability in the Indian Central Himalaya during last ca. 4,000 years inferred from a speleothem record: Impact of Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and Westerlies. Quat. Int. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2014.10.066

Laskar, A.H., Raghav, S., Yadava, M.G., Jani, R.A., Narayana, A.C. and, Ramesh, R., 2011. Potential of Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Variations of Speleothems from Andaman Islands, India, for Paleomonsoon Reconstruction. J. Geol. Res. 2011, 1-7. doi:10.1155/2011/ 272971

Laskar, A.H., Yadava, M.G., Ramesh, R., Polyak, V.J., Asmerom, Y., 2013. A 4 kyr stalagmite oxygen isotopic record of the past Indian Summer Monsoon in the Andaman Islands. Geochemistry, Geophys. Geosystems 14, 3555-3566. doi:10.1002/ggge.20203

Lekshmy, P.R., Midhun, M., Ramesh, R., 2015. Spatial variation of amount effect over peninsular India and Sri Lanka: Role of seasonality. Geophys. Res. Lett. 42, 5500-5507. doi:10.1002/ 2015GL064517

Lekshmy, P.R., Midhun, M., Ramesh, R., Jani, R.A., 2014. 18O depletion in monsoon rain relates to large scale organized convection rather than the amount of rainfall. Sci. Rep. 4, 5661. doi:10. 1038/srep05661

Li, C. and, Tang, M., 1986. Changes of air temperature of Qunghai-xizang plateau and its neighbourhood in the past 30 years. Plateau Meteorol. 5, 332-341.

Liang, F., Brook, G.A., Kotlia, B.S., Railsback, L.B., Hardt, B., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., Kandasamy, S., 2015. Panigarh cave stalagmite evidence of climate change in the Indian Central Himalaya since AD 1256: Monsoon breaks and winter southern jet depressions. Quat. Sci. Rev. 124, 145-161. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2015.07.017

Lone, M.A., Ahmad, S.M., Dung, N.C., Shen, C.C., Raza, W. and, Kumar, A., 2014. Speleothem based 1000-year high resolution record of Indian monsoon variability during the last deglaciation. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 395, 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2013.12. 010

Managave, S.R., Sheshshayee, M.S., Bhattacharyya, A. and, Ramesh, R., 2011. Intra-annual variations of teak cellulose S18O in Kerala , India : implications to the reconstruction of past summer and winter monsoon rains. Clim. Dyn. 37, 555-567. doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0917-9 Managave, S.R., Sheshshayee, M.S., Borgaonkar, H.P. and, Ramesh, R., 2010. Intra-annual oxygen isotope variations in Central Indian teak cellulose: possibility of improved resolution for past monsoon reconstruction. Curr. Sci. 98, 930-937.

Managave, S.R., Sheshshayee, M.S., Borgaonkar, H.P. and, Ramesh, R., 2010. Past break-monsoon conditions detectable by high resolution intra-annual d 18 O analysis of teak rings 37. doi: 10.1029/2009GL041172

Mann, M.E., Bradley, R.S. and, Hughes, M.K., 1999. Northern hemisphere temperatures during the past millennium: Inferences, uncertainties, and limitations. Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10. 1029/1999GL900070

Masson-Delmotte, V., Schulz, M., Abe-Ouchi, A., Beer, J., Ganopolski, A., Gonzalez Rouco, J.F., Jansen, E., Lambeck, K., Luterbacher, J., Naish, T. and Osborn, T., 2013. Information from paleoclimate archives. Climate change, in: IPCC Chapter 5. pp. 383-464.

Mayewski, P.A., Pregent, G.P., Jeschke., P.A. and, Ahmad, N., 1980. Himalayan and Trans-Himalayan Glacier Fluctuations and the South Asian Monsoon Record. Arct. Alp. Res. 12, 171-182.

Mayewski, P.A., Rohling, E.E., Stager, J.C., Karlen, W., Maasch, K.A., Meeker, L.D., Meyerson, E.A., Gasse, F., van Kreveld, S., Holmgren, K., Lee-Thorp, J., Rosqvist, G., Rack, F., Staubwasser, M., Schneider, R.R. and, Steig, E.J., 2004. Holocene climate variability. Quat. Res. 62, 243-255. doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2004.07.001 Midhun, M., Ramesh, R., 2015. Validation of S18O as a proxy for past monsoon rain by multi-GCM simulations. Clim. Dyn. doi:10.1007/s00382-015-2652-8 Murphy J. O and, Whetton P. H, 1989. A re-analysis of tree-rings chronology from Java; Proce.

koninkl. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. B 92, 241-257.

Overpeck, J., Anderson, D., Trumbore, S. and, Prell, W., 1996. The southwest Indian Monsoon over the last 18 000 years. Clim. Dyn. 12, 213-225. doi:10.1007/BF00211619 Pant, G.B. and, Borgaonkar H.P., 1983. Growth rings of teak trees and regional climatology. Environ. Manag. Ed. by L.R Singh, R.C.Tiwari R.P.Srivastav, Allahabad Geogr. Soc. India 153-155.

Pant, G.B. and, Maliekal, J.A., 1987. Holocene climatic changes over northwest India: An appraisal. Clim. Change 10, 183-194. doi:10.1007/BF00140254 Pant, G.B., Rupa Kumar, K., Sontakke, N.A. and, Borgaonkar H.P., 1993. Climate variability over India on century and larger time scale In: “Advances in tropical meteorological” (Eds. Keshavamurthy, R.N. and Joshi, P.C.),. TataMcGraw-Hills Publ. Co. Ltd.New Delhi 149-158. Parthasarathy, B., Munot, A.A. and, Kothawale, D.R., 1995. Monthly and seasonal rainfall series for all-India homogeneous regions and meteorological subdivions : 1871-1994, I.I.T.M. Res. Rep. NO. RR-65.

Pumijumnong, N., Eckstein, D. and, Sass, U., 1995. Tree-Ring Research on Tectona Grandis in Northern Thailand. IAWA J. 16, 385-392. doi:10.1163/22941932-90001428 Rajeevan, M., Bhate, J., Kale, J.D., Lal, B., 2006. High resolution daily gridded rainfall data for the Indian region: Analysis of break and active monsoon spells. Curr. Sci. 91, 296-306. Ramesh, R., Bhattacharya, S.K. and, Pant, G.B., 1989. Climatic significance of SD variations in a tropical tree species from India. Nature. doi:10.1038/337149a0 Ramesh, R., Tiwari, M., Chakraborty, S., Managave, S.R., Yadava, M.G. and, Sinha, D.K., 2010. Retrieval of south Asian monsoon variation during the Holocene from natural climatic archives. Curr. Sci. 99, 1770-1786.

Rao, V.P., Kessarkar, P.M., Thamban, M. and, Patil, S.K., 2010. Paleoclimatic and diagenetic history of the late quaternary sediments in a core from the Southeastern Arabian Sea: Geochemical and magnetic signals. J. Oceanogr. 66, 133-146. doi:10.1007/s10872-010-0011-2 Sano, M., Ramesh, R., Sheshshayee, M. S., and Sukumar, R., 2011. Increasing aridity over the past 223 years in the Nepal Himalaya inferred from a tree-ring S18O chronology. The Holocene. doi:0.1177/0959683611430338

Sano, M., Sheshshayee, M.S., Managave, S., Ramesh, R., Sukumar, R., Sweda, T., 2010. Climatic potential of S18O of Abies spectabilis from the Nepal Himalaya. Dendrochronologia 28, 9398. doi:10.1016/j.dendro.2009.05.005

Sanyal, P. and, Sinha, R., 2010. Evolution of the Indian summer monsoon : synthesis of continental records. Geol. Soc. London, Spec. Publ. 342, 153-183.

Saraswat, R., Lea, D.W., Nigam, R., Mackensen, A. and, Naik, D.K., 2013. Deglaciation in the tropical Indian Ocean driven by interplay between the regional monsoon and global teleconnections. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 375, 166-175. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2013.05.022

Sarkar, A., Ramesh, R., Somayajulu, B.L.K., Agnihotri, R., Jull, A.J.T. and, Burr, G.S., 2000. High resolution Holocene monsoon record from the eastern Arabian Sea. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 177, 209-218. doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(00)00053-4

Seko, K. and, Tahahashi, S., 1991. Characteristics of winter precipitation and its effect on glaciers in the Nepal Himalaya. Bull. Glacial Res. 9, 9-16.

Shah, S.K., Bhattacharyya, A., Chaudhary, V., 2007. Reconstruction of June - September precipitation based on tree-ring data of teak ( Tectona grandis L .) from Hoshangabad , Madhya Pradesh , India 25, 57-64. doi:10.1016/j.dendro.2007.02.001

Singh, A.D., Kroon, D. and, Ganeshram, R.S., 2006. Millennial scale variations in productivity and OMZ intensity in the Eastern Arabian Sea. J. Geol. Soc. India 68, 369-377.

Sinha, A., Cannariato, K.G., Stott, L.D., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., Yadava, M.G., Ramesh, R. and, Singh, I.B., 2007. A 900-year (600 to 1500 A.D.) record of the Indian summer monsoon precipitation from the core monsoon zone of India. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34. doi:10.1029/ 2007GL030431

Sirocko, F., Sarnthein, M., Erlenkeuser, H., Lange, H., Arnold, M. and, Duplessy, J.C., 1993. Century-scale events in monsoonal climate over the past 24,000 years. Nature 364, 322-324. doi:10.1038/364322a0

Sontakke, N.A., Pant, G.B. and, Singh, N., 1993. Optimization of the raingauges for a representative all Indian and Sub-divisional rainfall series. Theor. Appli. Clim. 47, 159-173.

Thompson, L.G., Mosley-Thompson, E., Davis, M.E., Lin, P.N., Dai, J., Bolzan J. F and, Yao, T., 1995. A 1000 year ice core climate record from the Guliya Ice Cap, China : its relationship to global climate variability. Ann. Glaciol. 21, 175-181.

Tiwari, M., Managave, S.R., Yadava, M.G. and, Ramesh, R., 2009. Spatial and temporal coherence of paleomonsoon records from marine and land proxies in the Indian region during the past 30 ka. Spec. Platin. Jubil. Publ. Indian Acad. Sci. Bangalore, (ed. N. Mukunda) 517535.

Tiwari, M., Singh, A.K. and, Ramesh, R., 2011. High-Resolution Monsoon Records Since Last Glacial Maximum: A Comparison of Marine and Terrestrial Paleoarchives from South Asia. J. Geol. Res. 2011, 1-12. doi:10.1155/2011/765248

Treydte, K.S., Schleser, G.H., Helle, G., Frank, D.C., Winiger, M., Haug, G.H. and, Esper, J., 2006. The twentieth century was the wettest period in northern Pakistan over the past millennium. Nature 440, 1179-82. doi:10.1038/nature04743

Yadava, M.G. and, Ramesh, R., 2006. Stable Oxygen and Carbon Isotope Variations as Monsoon Proxies : A Comparative Study of Speleothems from Four Different Locations in India. J. Geol. Soc. India 68, 461-475.

Yadava, M.G. and, Ramesh, R., 2005. Monsoon reconstruction from radiocarbon dated tropical Indian speleothems. The Holocene, 15(1), pp.48-59.

Yadava, M.G. and, Ramesh, R., 1999. Speleothems-Useful proxies for past monsoon rainfall. J. Sci. Ind. Res. (India). 58, 339-348.

Yadava, M.G., Ramesh, R., Pant, G.B., 2004. Past monsoon rainfall variations in peninsular India recorded in a 331-year-old speleothem. The Holocene 14, 517-524. doi:10.1191/ 0959683604hl728rp

Yao, T., Jiao, K., Tian, L., Li, Z., Li, Y., Liu, J., Huang, C., Xie, C. and, Thompson, L.G., 1995. Climatic and Environmental records in Guliya Ice Cap. Sci. China (Series B) 38, 228-237.

< Prev   CONTENTS   Source   Next >