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a. Transportation technologies have reduced both the time and the cost of travel. Development of the rail infrastructure has led to the initial development of mass tourism in British and other Western European coastal resorts. The mass production of cars had the same effect in North America. Passenger jets have extended mass tourism to the Mediterranean Sea, the Caribbean Sea, and other such hot spots. New transportation technologies have also contributed to the rise of alternative forms of tourism, as newer and bigger airplanes have made air transportation cheaper, faster, and more ubiquitous. Privatization and deregulation of air transportation has also made it cheaper and has opened new routes for tourism, while charter flights have increased accessibility further and further afield (Page 2009).

b. Both mass tourism and alternative tourism have benefited from the development of information technology (Conway and Timms 2010; Poon 1993). Tour operators initially used phones to book and bundle together flights, hotels, local guides’ services, rental cars, and other auxiliary tourist services. Later on, the development of the computer reservation system (CRS) or the global distribution system (GDS) has further contributed to the development of mass tourism by directly connecting tour operators to airlines and to other suppliers (Goeldner and Ritchie 2009).

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