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A short course of lectures
«The fathers of the church»





Whether the yolk of the egg is generated from menstrual blood or from some other moisture.Why the members are discovered to be cold in one who is dying but they are warm in one already dead.Why pears placed in barley chaff become ripe.Whether every animal ought to be horned.Whether an animal naturally has to place its right foot forward.Whether it is by nature, from customary activity, or by instruction that cunning is present in animals that walk.Why the kidneys and the eyes and ears are divided into pairs.Whether every voice is significative. Why the human lungs are more solid and are not divided into lobes.Why the suture in the bone of a human skull is more noticeable than in the bone of other animals.Whether this power is corrupted once the fetus is formed.Whether an animal having a shell must naturally be enclosed inside the shell.BOOK SEVENTEENWhy ears may be located on various parts of the head although the eyes, nevertheless, are located close together. Whether spirit is necessary in animals.Whether sperm is a superfluity of the last food.Why insanity follows after being bitten by a rabid dog.On the cock's song.Whether females produce sperm.Whether the veins arise from the heart or the liver.Why the owl [bubo] does not see in the daytime.Whether an animal having parts of animals different in species can be generated from two animals that are different in species.Whether the organ of touch and taste is in the heart and whether the organs of the other senses are in the head.Whether serpents should have members that serve the motive power.On the generation of animals, in relation to wind.Whether anything like a monster exists in nature.Whether a pulse exists in every animal.Whether sperm is necessary for the generation of animals.Whether brute animals are differentiated according to their habits.Whether veins exist in every part of the body.Whether desire for coition is caused by the hot or the cold.Why the blood of the one slain flows while the murderer is present.BOOK FIVEBOOK NINEWhether spirit is a body. Whether some of the bile or choler is naturally sent to the intestines.Whether the cause of a monstrosity stems from the matter or from the efficient cause.Whether every animal that has urine has excrement.Whether birds ought to have a double stomach, like a liver and crop.Why one who has been wounded in the arm's muscle loses the power of speech.Why some people who eat more are thin, whereas others who eat only a little are fat.Whether a sensitive soul can be produced through the power of the semen.On the complexion of the heart.Whether sleep is present in every animal. Whether a male or a female can be generated by contrivance.Why a large forehead indicates a slow person, prone to foolishness, and a small one indicates a good disposition.Whether the camel and the horse distinguish their mothers from others.Whether the diaphragm is necessary.Whether the marrow is the nutriment for bones.Why people in warm places have a smaller stature and less strength and boldness than those in cold places.Why charcoal is kindled by a crystal when it is placed opposite the sun's rays.Whether desire in the operation of intercourse is greater in men or in women.Additional Questions for the Fourth Book Why a morsel of bread placed in a very strong wine increases the sharpness of the wine.Whether flyers are more cautious than walkers.BIBLIOGRAPHYWhether all the elements concur for the generation of an animal generated by putrefaction.Whether the mule and she-mule are sterile by nature.Whether operations occur through similar or dissimilar parts.Whether the web is produced from the spider's substance or from some superfluity it has.Whether sneezing is a sign of good or evil.Why birds imitate the human in speech more than the other animals.Whether reptiles can live long without food.Whether blood is the last food for the members.Whether in a wind egg the white has to be distinguished from the yellow.Whether animals breathe during the time of concealment.Whether sperm is generated immediately from blood.Whether the menstrual flow is sudden. Whether sex is necessary for the generation of animals.Whether the embryo breathes in the womb.Whether sleep is an affect of the common or a particular sense.Why roasted meat strengthens more than does boiled meat.Whether the nerves are of a melancholic or phlegmatic complexion.Whether the bones have sensation.Whether there is a double mode of proceeding in science?Whether the descriptive process is more necessary than the process that assigns causes.Whether all animal members lead back to a single member.Whether the cause of similarity or dissimilarity among the members of various animals occurs as a result of the complexion of mixables or on account of the soul.Whether the four humors are generated from the same nutriment.Whether a man has to be larger than a female.On teeth.Whether a mole [molyn] can be generated naturally in a woman from semen emitted through pollution in sleep.Whether a variety of organic parts is necessary to the animal.Whether any animal breathes air.Whether only women suffer menstruation.Whether the marrow is hot.Why some animals have feet and some do not.Whether a difference in ages ought to be calculated according to seven-year periods.Whether an affliction of the diaphragm disturbs the intellect.Whether blood is more abundant in men than in women.Whether sterility is a natural affliction [passio].Whether touch is in the flesh or in something analogous to it.On the nature of teeth.BOOK EIGHTWhy the blood in the heart is liquid and is coagulated outside of it.Whether any animal ought to lack a spleen, a gall bladder, which is its reservoir [cista], and lungs.Whether male and female diversify species.Which elements predominate in homogenous parts.Why salt placed in water liquefies, but it does not liquefy when placed on a burning tile or in oil (or boiling honey).Whether the ant gathers seeds. Whether the retention of the sperm is more harmful to men than is the retention of menses in women.BOOK FOURWhether every flyer also walks.On the color of the eyes.On the fetus before and after birth.Whether the heart has a dedicated location in serpents, in ringed animals, and in bloodless animals.Whether brute animals know friendship or enmity.Whether the emission of semen weakens the male more than the female.Whether the animal is nourished from the yolk.Whether some animals should live in a social group.Albert the Great's Questions concerning "On Animals"Whether the bee can produce honey.Whether the mother or the father is more responsible for an obstacle to generation.Whether food will be necessary to the animal.Why snow is preserved in barley chaff.Whether it is necessary for every animal to have members specially designated for generation.Whether choler or bile is the cause of a short lifespan.BOOK ELEVENWhether hands should belong to the human alone.Whether the first generation of the blood occurs in the heart or in the liver.Whether the brain is naturally cold and moist.Whether sensation exists in uniform members [membris similibus] and whether operation exists in non-uniform members.Whether one element is dominant in any given sense organ.Whether this power is from the father's soul.Whether the liver is generated from semen or from menstrual blood.Whether an organic member that has been cut off can be restored.Whether bloodless animals are naturally cold.Whether the greatest pleasure occurs in generation by means of coition.BOOK TWELVEWhether every animal that has a vessel to receive the first superfluity, which is excrement, also has a vessel for the second superfluity, which is urine.Whether the generation of one that shares each sex is natural.On rainwater.Whether sperm is a material part of the fetus [conceptus].Whether in respect to motive parts bloodless animals should surpass those with blood.Whether physiognomy can be established on the basis of parts of the body.Whether a power regulating life exists in a human.Whether putrefaction is a path to generation.Whether the first digestion, which occurs in the stomach, changes the nutriment into a different species.Whether the human ought to lack a tail naturally.Whether of all the humors blood alone nourishes.Which cause is naturally prior. On the number of causes.Whether the male is better nourishment than the female.Whether fish have hearing. Whether the lamb will flee the wolf without perceiving that there is something harmful in it.Whether wax and honey are produced from the same material.Whether the menses are necessary for generation after impregnation.BOOK THIRTEENWhether the heart is hotter than the spirit.Whether an animal is born to seek out nourishment more at night than by day.Whether the motion of birds, which is flight, is natural.On hair.Whether local motion particularly agrees with birds.Why women have such large breasts, and men do not.Whether these animals have the first act of life without the second.Whether the motion of the lungs is natural.Whether sleep is necessary for an animal.Whether all members are generated simultaneously.Whether the marrow is necessary for the bones' nourishment.Whether the period for generation among men lasts longer than does the period for conception in women.Why is it that must, although it is clearer, does not cause drunkenness?Whether pleasure is greater in brute beasts than in the human at the time of intercourse.Whether the nerves take their origin from the brain or the heart.Whether the deer is an animal possessing judgment.Whether the informative power for the other members is in the heart after it has been formed.Whether official parts are composed from homogenous ones by means of continuity.Whether friendship and enmity are present in all brute animals.Whether female birds can be impregnated by the male's kiss or odor alone.In which season coition flourishes more. Whether our intellect can achieve knowledge [cognitio] of the first cause.Whether pestilential disease [morbus pestilentialis] arises from an infection of the air.BOOK TENWhether thick blood is more nourishing than thin blood.Whether the male is hotter than the female.Whether the first digestion is in the mouth.Whether the heat in an artery is natural or accidental.On the customs of the wolf.Whether the arteries are necessary to an animal.Why a person who passes by a corpse suffers goosebumps.Whether the intellective soul is created and infused into the body simultaneously.Whether a more intense heat is found in the element of fire, or in a mixture.Whether the egg white is generated from some superfluity of the egg or from some substance of the one laying the egg.Whether a spider naturally produces a web.Whether birds and fish ought not to chew.Whether a fetus can be generated from one part of the sperm.Whether sperm is derived more from one part than from another.Whether food or drink is more necessary.Which cause the natural philosopher ought to consider more.Whether nature intends the generation of a female.Whether the heart is susceptible to illness.Whether growth is necessary for living things.Whether blood is the nutriment for the stomach.Whether blood is a principle of the animal's preservation or is a natural source of corruption.Whether art or craft is present in beasts.Whether motion is present in every animal.Whether some sweat can be bloody. On the nutriment and the drink of flyers.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSWhether the operation of coition flourishes more in a cold or hot region.Whether old age can be slowed down. Whether milk is necessary for the nourishment of the fetus.Why vision takes pleasure more in the color green than in any other color.Whether youth can be restored.Whether fish are nourished by water.On hair.Whether life is preserved longer in places that are warm and moist, cold and dry, or cold and moist.Whether every animal has a fixed type of nourishment.Whether the heat, which is an instrument of the soul, is an elemental heat.Whether pleasure is greater in men than in women during coition.Whether art and craft are more suited to ringed flyers than to other animals.On certain properties of eggs. Whether age can be renewed by taking the poison of a viper or some other poison.Whether the Philosopher ought to treat the mode of dividing here.Whether urine is a simple or mixed body. Whether the lion's neck is continuous and not hollow.Whether the soul is in the sperm.Why all animals except the human are very noisy during intercourse.BOOK EIGHTEENRelated questions about intercourse.Whether drink is necessary for an animal.BOOK SIXTEENWhether voice is natural or voluntary or artificial.Whether generation of a mule from a mare and an ass is natural.On the urine of brute beasts.In respect to which part is physiognomy especially carried out? Whether an immobile animal is always aquatic and not terrestrial.Whether there is a mixture of semen and nutriment in fish eggs.Whether homogenous [consimiles] parts are generated immediately from the elements.Whether the arteries take their origin from the heart or the brain.Why the rational animal has only one species.QUESTIONS CONCERNING ARISTOTLE'S ON ANIMALSWhether zirbus and fat have a complexion that is naturally hot or cold.What is that first thing to which all the animal members lead back?BOOK ONEWhether animals are alive at the time of concealment.Whether fleshiness on a person's head impairs the intellect.Whether a softer heart is better.Whether breasts ought to be located on the chest in a woman.Whether the male's flesh is softer than the female's flesh.Whether the moon has dominion over the menstrual flow.Whether the right foot is more unfettered and better suited for motion than the left.BOOK FOURTEENWhether the sperm is of the nature of parts or of some superfluity.Why does a dead person staying in the water rise to the top, and a living one sink to the bottom?Whether a wind egg, if the male's sperm comes into contact with it, is suited for generation.Whether a male or female has a longer life span.Whether fish eat their young.Whether parts that have been cut off live after they have been cut off.On the sheep and its properties.Whether the human foot naturally bends to the front, and the hand to the rear.Whether the heart is pyramidal in shape.Whether honey is made in the bee's body or outside it.Whether cartilage is necessary.Whether coition is necessary for the generation of animals.Whether the male and the female are especially urged on at the same time to generate.Whether the soul's power operates through a mediating heat.On the signs of conception.On voice.Whether sterility has its root in the soul or the body.Whether blood is more abundant in thin animals than in fat ones.Whether an animal that has a large heart is fearful.Whether bile [fel] is only a superfluity.Whether the embryo emits superfluities in the womb.Whether the bones are necessary.Whether the elements exist in act in homogenous parts.Why was it that someone who saw an enemy dropped dead?Whether long and conspicuous lines on the hands may be signs of a long life, and whether short ones are signs of a shorter life.Whether the power's strength causes the generation of a male.Whether an aquatic animal, once its form is changed, can become terrestrial.Whether there is more pleasure in the knowledge [cognitio] of superior or inferior things.Whether the nerves are necessary.Whether the male is formed more quickly than the female.Why a certain wise man after being bled forgot all that he knew.Why members that are weakened by hunger are immediately strengthened by food that has been received, though not yet incorporated, in the stomach.Whether sensation is in the brain. Why a human's chest is broader, with respect to its size, than that of other animals.BOOK SIXBOOK NINETEENWhether blood is necessary for an animal.Whether a human should naturally have wings and fins.Whether sleep occurs in the embryo.At what time especially should human generation take place?Whether veins are necessary in an animal body.Whether the upper intestines should be thinner and longer and more delicate than the lower ones.On the birth of a woman and her circumstances.On the properties indicating coition.BOOK THREEWhether the power that is in the semen exerts any power in the production of the intellectual soul.Why bulging eyes indicate a disturbed power of discretion and why sunken eyes indicate acute vision.BOOK FIFTEENWhether the male is better suited for proper behavior [mores] than the female.Whether a male grows more slowly outside the uterus than a woman does.Whether the human body should be less hairy than the bodies of other animals.Whether several intestines are required beyond the stomach.BOOK TWOWhether flyers naturally have to generate by laying eggs.On chicks.Why wise men and philosophers very often generate foolish children.Why the exterior members are divided into pairs, while the interior members are not.Whether sleep is an affect [passio] of the heart or the brain.Why were eyes and ears absent in a boy that was born?Whether touching the diaphragm is a cause of laughter.Whence the serpent's motion begins, as if from a principle.On birds' eggs.Whether sperm comes forth from the entire body.Whether the white of the egg is warmer than the yolk, or contrariwise.Whether male and female co-exist in one and the same thing.Whether some power in the semen is the cause of resemblance.Whether animals like this are generated by a superior power.On animals that ruminate and have long extremities.Whether the brain is cold owing to the heart's tempering action.Whether a heart so flows to the other parts that it receives nothing from them.Whether spirit is generated in the heart. Whether all bones are nourished.Whether one who has a defect in some part necessarily generates an animal that is defective in the same part.Whether skin and web [tela] are necessary to an animal.Whether coition is necessary for every animal.Whether every animal has every sense.Whether animals take nourishment when they lie hidden.BOOK SEVENWhether venous blood is thicker than arterial blood.Whether the eye has a different nature according to its colors.On the sicknesses of pigs, dogs, and horses.Whether the vital power has something analogous to it and whether it exists in some organ.Whether animals lie dormant in winter on account of fear or weakness.Whether a soul is one in number in some part that has been divided.Why marine fish are very bland although they are nourished on salt water.Whether parts in an animal have a location like the parts of the universe.Whether the heart is generated first. Why musk placed among fragrant things loses its aroma and later, when placed in a foul-smelling place, it recovers its odor.Whether the non-living is naturally prior to the living.Whether the motive power proceeds from the posterior or anterior part of the brain.Whether the vegetative soul comes into being in a natural way.Whether the embryo is nourished before its formation.Why someone suffering a fever lost the knowledge of letters.Whether there is something intermediate between living and non-living.Whether wind eggs are generated from a superfluity of sperm.Why madmen have so much strength.On laughter.Whether the blood is generated first in the heart or in the liver.Whether the final differentia is convertible with the species.Whether this book has animals for its subject.Whether the power of the soul must be in the semen.
 
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