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A short course of lectures
«The fathers of the church»

BOOK TWELVEBOOK SIXTEENWhether animals are alive at the time of concealment.On animals that ruminate and have long extremities.Whether bile [fel] is only a superfluity.Whether of all the humors blood alone nourishes.Whether the heat in an artery is natural or accidental.Why the owl [bubo] does not see in the daytime.BOOK THIRTEENWhether blood is more abundant in men than in women.Whether blood is the last food for the members.Whether the operation of coition flourishes more in a cold or hot region.Whether growth is necessary for living things.BOOK ELEVENWhether the animal is nourished from the yolk.Whether an animal that has a large heart is fearful.Whether the intellective soul is created and infused into the body simultaneously.Whether animals breathe during the time of concealment.Why wise men and philosophers very often generate foolish children.Whether brute animals know friendship or enmity.On the signs of conception.Whether the motive power proceeds from the posterior or anterior part of the brain.Whether the brain is naturally cold and moist.Whether a male or a female can be generated by contrivance.Whether veins are necessary in an animal body.Whether pleasure is greater in brute beasts than in the human at the time of intercourse.Whether any animal ought to lack a spleen, a gall bladder, which is its reservoir [cista], and lungs.Whether the soul is in the sperm.Whether wax and honey are produced from the same material.On teeth.Whether the informative power for the other members is in the heart after it has been formed.Whether every voice is significative. On voice.Whether the embryo is nourished before its formation.Whether the blood is generated first in the heart or in the liver.Whether honey is made in the bee's body or outside it.Why women have such large breasts, and men do not.Whether the descriptive process is more necessary than the process that assigns causes.Whether birds ought to have a double stomach, like a liver and crop.Why the rational animal has only one species.Whether generation of a mule from a mare and an ass is natural.Why a morsel of bread placed in a very strong wine increases the sharpness of the wine.Whether putrefaction is a path to generation.Whether female birds can be impregnated by the male's kiss or odor alone.Whether the human ought to lack a tail naturally.Whether the mother or the father is more responsible for an obstacle to generation.On the cock's song.Whether the veins arise from the heart or the liver.Whether food or drink is more necessary.BOOK SIXWhether one who has a defect in some part necessarily generates an animal that is defective in the same part.On the customs of the wolf.Whether the final differentia is convertible with the species.Whether there is more pleasure in the knowledge [cognitio] of superior or inferior things.Whether an animal having a shell must naturally be enclosed inside the shell.On the sicknesses of pigs, dogs, and horses.On the complexion of the heart.Whether physiognomy can be established on the basis of parts of the body.BOOK SEVENWhether females produce sperm.Whether the embryo emits superfluities in the womb.Whether anything like a monster exists in nature.Whether sterility has its root in the soul or the body.BOOK NINETEENOn the birth of a woman and her circumstances.Whether a mole [molyn] can be generated naturally in a woman from semen emitted through pollution in sleep.Whether male and female co-exist in one and the same thing.Whether pleasure is greater in men than in women during coition.Whether parts that have been cut off live after they have been cut off.Whether the heart has a dedicated location in serpents, in ringed animals, and in bloodless animals.Whether every animal ought to be horned.Whether sperm is generated immediately from blood.Whether the bones are necessary.Why some people who eat more are thin, whereas others who eat only a little are fat.Whether sensation is in the brain. Whether there is a mixture of semen and nutriment in fish eggs.Whether skin and web [tela] are necessary to an animal.Why snow is preserved in barley chaff.Whether the cause of similarity or dissimilarity among the members of various animals occurs as a result of the complexion of mixables or on account of the soul.Why marine fish are very bland although they are nourished on salt water.Whether every animal has every sense.Whether sperm comes forth from the entire body.Why the kidneys and the eyes and ears are divided into pairs.Whether milk is necessary for the nourishment of the fetus.On the nutriment and the drink of flyers.Whether every animal has a fixed type of nourishment.Whether cartilage is necessary.Which elements predominate in homogenous parts.Whether homogenous [consimiles] parts are generated immediately from the elements.On hair.Whether sperm is necessary for the generation of animals.Whether animals take nourishment when they lie hidden.Whether an aquatic animal, once its form is changed, can become terrestrial.Whether sleep is an affect [passio] of the heart or the brain.Whether blood is a principle of the animal's preservation or is a natural source of corruption.Whether it is by nature, from customary activity, or by instruction that cunning is present in animals that walk.Whether the vital power has something analogous to it and whether it exists in some organ.Whether thick blood is more nourishing than thin blood.Whether the menses are necessary for generation after impregnation.Whether the white of the egg is warmer than the yolk, or contrariwise.QUESTIONS CONCERNING ARISTOTLE'S ON ANIMALSWhether an animal naturally has to place its right foot forward.On the nature of teeth.Why the exterior members are divided into pairs, while the interior members are not.Whether there is a double mode of proceeding in science?Whether one element is dominant in any given sense organ.BIBLIOGRAPHYWhether the upper intestines should be thinner and longer and more delicate than the lower ones.Whether all bones are nourished.Whether the period for generation among men lasts longer than does the period for conception in women.Whether the male is better nourishment than the female.Whether sensation exists in uniform members [membris similibus] and whether operation exists in non-uniform members.Whether blood is the nutriment for the stomach.Whether the heart is pyramidal in shape.Whether the emission of semen weakens the male more than the female.Whether the power's strength causes the generation of a male.Why charcoal is kindled by a crystal when it is placed opposite the sun's rays.Whether a softer heart is better.Whether an animal is born to seek out nourishment more at night than by day.Why all animals except the human are very noisy during intercourse.Whether sperm is a material part of the fetus [conceptus].Whether sex is necessary for the generation of animals.Whether animals like this are generated by a superior power.Whether the lamb will flee the wolf without perceiving that there is something harmful in it.Whether the arteries are necessary to an animal.Whether choler or bile is the cause of a short lifespan.Why the blood in the heart is liquid and is coagulated outside of it.Whether the greatest pleasure occurs in generation by means of coition.Whether motion is present in every animal.Whether the nerves are necessary.Whether a more intense heat is found in the element of fire, or in a mixture.Whether fish have hearing. Why the suture in the bone of a human skull is more noticeable than in the bone of other animals.Whether sleep is necessary for an animal.Whether a human should naturally have wings and fins.At what time especially should human generation take place?Whether birds and fish ought not to chew.Why the blood of the one slain flows while the murderer is present.Whether nature intends the generation of a female.On rainwater.Whether old age can be slowed down. Whether drink is necessary for an animal.Whether the vegetative soul comes into being in a natural way.Whether there is something intermediate between living and non-living.Whether the bones have sensation.Whether the web is produced from the spider's substance or from some superfluity it has.BOOK FIVEWhy insanity follows after being bitten by a rabid dog.Whether the human foot naturally bends to the front, and the hand to the rear.Why someone suffering a fever lost the knowledge of letters.Whether sperm is a superfluity of the last food.Whether hands should belong to the human alone.Whether a spider naturally produces a web.Why one who has been wounded in the arm's muscle loses the power of speech.Whether the brain is cold owing to the heart's tempering action.Whether voice is natural or voluntary or artificial.Whether zirbus and fat have a complexion that is naturally hot or cold.BOOK EIGHTEENWhether animals lie dormant in winter on account of fear or weakness.Whether the nerves are of a melancholic or phlegmatic complexion.Whether youth can be restored.Whether the human body should be less hairy than the bodies of other animals.Whether the liver is generated from semen or from menstrual blood.Whether all animal members lead back to a single member.Whether the egg white is generated from some superfluity of the egg or from some substance of the one laying the egg.Why the members are discovered to be cold in one who is dying but they are warm in one already dead.In which season coition flourishes more. Whether a male grows more slowly outside the uterus than a woman does.Whether blood is necessary for an animal.Whether it is necessary for every animal to have members specially designated for generation.Whether the heat, which is an instrument of the soul, is an elemental heat.Whether the power that is in the semen exerts any power in the production of the intellectual soul.BOOK THREEWhether an animal having parts of animals different in species can be generated from two animals that are different in species.Whether some sweat can be bloody. Whether a pulse exists in every animal.Whether a wind egg, if the male's sperm comes into contact with it, is suited for generation.Whether any animal breathes air.Whether the heart is generated first. Whether touch is in the flesh or in something analogous to it.Whether pestilential disease [morbus pestilentialis] arises from an infection of the air.BOOK ONEWhether the arteries take their origin from the heart or the brain.On chicks.Whether several intestines are required beyond the stomach.On certain properties of eggs. Why members that are weakened by hunger are immediately strengthened by food that has been received, though not yet incorporated, in the stomach.Whether parts in an animal have a location like the parts of the universe.Whether this power is from the father's soul.Whether desire for coition is caused by the hot or the cold.Why a large forehead indicates a slow person, prone to foolishness, and a small one indicates a good disposition.Whether some animals should live in a social group.Why pears placed in barley chaff become ripe.Which cause is naturally prior. On the number of causes.Why salt placed in water liquefies, but it does not liquefy when placed on a burning tile or in oil (or boiling honey).Whether male and female diversify species.Whether fleshiness on a person's head impairs the intellect.BOOK FOURWhether veins exist in every part of the body.Why some animals have feet and some do not.Whether our intellect can achieve knowledge [cognitio] of the first cause.Whether the deer is an animal possessing judgment.On hair.Why a certain wise man after being bled forgot all that he knew.Whether brute animals are differentiated according to their habits.Whether the eye has a different nature according to its colors.Whether flyers are more cautious than walkers.Whether food will be necessary to the animal.Why bulging eyes indicate a disturbed power of discretion and why sunken eyes indicate acute vision.Whether the moon has dominion over the menstrual flow.Whether life is preserved longer in places that are warm and moist, cold and dry, or cold and moist.Whether flyers naturally have to generate by laying eggs.Whether the motion of the lungs is natural.Whether the yolk of the egg is generated from menstrual blood or from some other moisture.Whether fish eat their young.On the fetus before and after birth.BOOK TENWhether the generation of one that shares each sex is natural.Whether an organic member that has been cut off can be restored.Whether age can be renewed by taking the poison of a viper or some other poison.Whether long and conspicuous lines on the hands may be signs of a long life, and whether short ones are signs of a shorter life.Whether the marrow is the nutriment for bones.Whether touching the diaphragm is a cause of laughter.BOOK SEVENTEENWhy were eyes and ears absent in a boy that was born?Whether every flyer also walks.Additional Questions for the Fourth Book Whether the embryo breathes in the womb.Whether some of the bile or choler is naturally sent to the intestines.Why madmen have so much strength.Whether the first digestion, which occurs in the stomach, changes the nutriment into a different species.Whether this power is corrupted once the fetus is formed.Whether the bee can produce honey.Whether the organ of touch and taste is in the heart and whether the organs of the other senses are in the head.BOOK EIGHTBOOK FOURTEENACKNOWLEDGMENTSWhether the elements exist in act in homogenous parts.Whether the sperm is of the nature of parts or of some superfluity.Whether desire in the operation of intercourse is greater in men or in women.Whether some power in the semen is the cause of resemblance.Whether the cause of a monstrosity stems from the matter or from the efficient cause.Whether the four humors are generated from the same nutriment.Whether the mule and she-mule are sterile by nature.Whether the power of the soul must be in the semen.BOOK NINEWhether operations occur through similar or dissimilar parts.Whether the right foot is more unfettered and better suited for motion than the left.Whether the menstrual flow is sudden. On the urine of brute beasts.What is that first thing to which all the animal members lead back?Whether in a wind egg the white has to be distinguished from the yellow.Whether the heart is hotter than the spirit.Whether the male and the female are especially urged on at the same time to generate.Why musk placed among fragrant things loses its aroma and later, when placed in a foul-smelling place, it recovers its odor.Whether a male or female has a longer life span.Whether friendship and enmity are present in all brute animals.Whether venous blood is thicker than arterial blood.Whether every animal that has urine has excrement.Whether the diaphragm is necessary.Whether the ant gathers seeds. On laughter.Whether only women suffer menstruation.Why a person who passes by a corpse suffers goosebumps.Whether spirit is necessary in animals.Which cause the natural philosopher ought to consider more.BOOK FIFTEENWhether spirit is generated in the heart. Whether the heart is susceptible to illness.Whether official parts are composed from homogenous ones by means of continuity.Why people in warm places have a smaller stature and less strength and boldness than those in cold places.Whether a variety of organic parts is necessary to the animal.Why is it that must, although it is clearer, does not cause drunkenness?Whether the lion's neck is continuous and not hollow.In respect to which part is physiognomy especially carried out? Whether the non-living is naturally prior to the living.Whether in respect to motive parts bloodless animals should surpass those with blood.Whether all the elements concur for the generation of an animal generated by putrefaction.Whether this book has animals for its subject.Whether coition is necessary for the generation of animals.On the sheep and its properties.Whether the soul's power operates through a mediating heat.Whether a man has to be larger than a female.On the generation of animals, in relation to wind.Whether a heart so flows to the other parts that it receives nothing from them.Whether coition is necessary for every animal.Whether sterility is a natural affliction [passio].Whether the male is formed more quickly than the female.Whether the first generation of the blood occurs in the heart or in the liver.Why ears may be located on various parts of the head although the eyes, nevertheless, are located close together. Whether the nerves take their origin from the brain or the heart.Whether bloodless animals are naturally cold.Whether sperm is derived more from one part than from another.Whether a sensitive soul can be produced through the power of the semen.Whether the male's flesh is softer than the female's flesh.Whether all members are generated simultaneously.Whether serpents should have members that serve the motive power.Whether the camel and the horse distinguish their mothers from others.Whether a soul is one in number in some part that has been divided.Whence the serpent's motion begins, as if from a principle.Why was it that someone who saw an enemy dropped dead?Related questions about intercourse.Whether the male is better suited for proper behavior [mores] than the female.Whether the male is hotter than the female.Why birds imitate the human in speech more than the other animals.Whether the marrow is hot.Whether reptiles can live long without food.Whether art or craft is present in beasts.Whether the first digestion is in the mouth.Why does a dead person staying in the water rise to the top, and a living one sink to the bottom?On the properties indicating coition.On the color of the eyes.Whether an affliction of the diaphragm disturbs the intellect.Whether art and craft are more suited to ringed flyers than to other animals.Whether sneezing is a sign of good or evil.Whether breasts ought to be located on the chest in a woman.Whether sleep occurs in the embryo.Whether sleep is present in every animal. Whether a power regulating life exists in a human.Whether wind eggs are generated from a superfluity of sperm.BOOK TWOWhether sleep is an affect of the common or a particular sense.Why roasted meat strengthens more than does boiled meat.Whether fish are nourished by water.Whether every animal that has a vessel to receive the first superfluity, which is excrement, also has a vessel for the second superfluity, which is urine.Why vision takes pleasure more in the color green than in any other color.Whether the retention of the sperm is more harmful to men than is the retention of menses in women.Albert the Great's Questions concerning "On Animals"Whether blood is more abundant in thin animals than in fat ones.Whether local motion particularly agrees with birds.On birds' eggs.Whether these animals have the first act of life without the second.Whether the marrow is necessary for the bones' nourishment.Whether the motion of birds, which is flight, is natural.Whether urine is a simple or mixed body. Whether the Philosopher ought to treat the mode of dividing here.Whether an immobile animal is always aquatic and not terrestrial.Why a human's chest is broader, with respect to its size, than that of other animals.Why the human lungs are more solid and are not divided into lobes.Whether a fetus can be generated from one part of the sperm.Whether a difference in ages ought to be calculated according to seven-year periods.Whether spirit is a body.
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