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Emotions are visually expressed through changes in facial expressions. Whether or not facial expressions are the same in all cultures we can define

The Facial Deductive System

FIGURE 11.2 The Facial Deductive System.

this author’s stance is that we can define invariants that can be applied as morph tuples on Eigen expression schemas. Based on his theory of evolution, Darwin suggested that the expressions are universal. However, there was no general consensus. In 1971, Ekman and Friesen conducted studies on subjects from western and eastern cultures and reported that the facial expressions of emotions are “constant” across cultures (Ekman, 1971). However, in 1994, Russell wrote a critique questioning the claims of universal recognition of emotion from facial expressions. This author does not see a need to adhere to such general universality, but maintains that there are universal invariants defined based on Eigen tupling morph schemas. That Russell was refuted by Ekman and Izard, or however, is not all on common accepted strong “scientific” bases, and might not be consequential. One reason for not engaging in such disagreements on our part is that there is not a universal cognitive basis that can be interpreted across all cultures. All we need is invariants on what the six emotional states are.

Newer expression recognition systems, e.g., Tian et al.’s (2000) AFA systems have developed methods that attempt to recognize the basic expressions and some attempts at recognizing nonbasic expressions. There have been very few attempts at recognizing the temporal dynamics of the face. The agent computing Morph Gentzen models here sequent with, for example, Sandewall Features are capable to further address that area’s specifics. Pantic and Patras have reported successful recognition of facials and their temporal segments. Psychologists have proved that posed expressions are different from spontaneous expressions, in terms of their appearance, timing and temporal characteristics. Facial features can be classified as being basic or transient. Permanent features are the features like eyes, lips, brows and cheeks that remain permanently. Transient features include facial lines, brow wrinkles and deepened furrows that appear with changes in expression and disappear on a neutral face. Understanding the emulating human emotion might help in out efforts to understand intelligence.

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