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Renewable Biofuels: Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass by Microbial Community


BackgroundIntroductionLignin: A Major Barrier in Enzymatic DegradationOverview of Lignin Structure and FunctionLignin CharacterizationPretreatment to Break the Lignin RecalcitranceVarious Types of PretreatmentConventional Approach During Pretreatment with a “Sugar” FocusWEx Pretreatment Approaches the Biomass with a “Sugar as well as Lignin” FocusEffect of Pretreatment on the Sugars Released and Lignin Carbohydrate Structural ChangesImpact of Dilute Acid Pretreatment on the Lignin Carbohydrate Complex StructureImpact of Steam Explosion Pretreatment on Lignin Carbohydrate Complex StructureImpact of Ammonia Fiber Explosion (AFEX) Pretreatment on the Lignin Carbohydrate Complex StructureImpact of Sulfite (SPORL) Pretreatment on the Lignin Carbohydrate Complex StructureImpact of Organosolv Pretreatment on the Lignin Carbohydrate Complex StructureLimitations of Conventional Pretreatment TechnologiesReferencesRole of Microorganisms in Lignocellulosic BiodegradationIntroductionLignocellulose StructureCelluloseHemicelluloseLigninEnzymatic Hydrolysis of LignocelluloseEnzymatic Hydrolysis of CelluloseEnzymatic Hydrolysis of HemicellulosesEnzymatic Hydrolysis of LigninBiodegradation by MicroorganismsCellulose BiodegradationHemicellulose BiodegradationLignin BiodegradationPhenol Oxidases (Laccases) (Benzenediol or P-Diphenol: Oxygen Oxidoreductases, EC 1.10.3.2)PeroxidasesLignin Peroxidases (LiP) (1,2-Bis-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)- propane-l, 3-diol/Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidoreductases, EC 1.11.1.14)Manganese Peroxidases (MnP) (Mn (ll)/Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidoreductases, EC 1.11.1.13Versatile PeroxidasesOther Lignin-Degrading Enzymes and Accessory EnzymesLignocellulolytic Enzymes: Potential for BiorefineryConclusionReferencesEnzyme Production from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus StrainIntroductionMaterials and MethodsWet Explosion-Alkaline Pretreatment of Corn Stover for Cellulase Production from T. reesei RUT-C30Feedstock and Pretreatment (Wet Explosion) of Corn Stover for в-Glucosidase Production from A. saccharolyticusMicroorganisms and Inoculum MediaFermentation SetupEnzyme CharacterizationEnzymatic Hydrolysis of Wet-Exploded Corn Stover and Loblolly PineAnalytical MethodsResults and DiscussionEnzyme ProductionEnzyme CharacterizationWet Explosion Pretreatment of Corn Stover and Loblolly Pine for Enzymatic Hydrolysis ExperimentEvaluation of On-Site Produced Enzymes by Enzymatic Hydrolysis ExperimentComparison of On-Site and Commercial Cellulolytic Enzyme Efficiency on Corn StoverComparison of On-Site and Commercial Cellulolytic Enzyme Efficiency on Loblolly PineConclusionsReferencesUse of Commercial Enzymes to Boost On-Site Enzyme EfficiencyIntroductionMaterials and MethodsEnzymesRaw Material and Wet Explosion PretreatmentPreparation of InoculumEnzyme FermentationEnzymes and ActivitiesEnzymatic Hydrolysis of Wet-Exploded Loblolly Pine (WELP)Analytical Methods and CalculationsResults and DiscussionEnzyme ActivitiesRaw Material and Wet Explosion Pretreatment of Loblolly PineEnzymatic HydrolysisEffect of Cellic®Ctec2 Supplementation on In-House Produced Enzymes for WELP HydrolysisEffect of Cellic®Htec2 Supplementation on In-House Produced Enzymes for WELP HydrolysisEffect of Novozym 188 Supplementation on In-House Produced Enzymes for WELP HydrolysisConclusionReferences
 
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