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Sample demography

The link to the online survey was sent to leaders working in international enterprises. Out of 156 surveys that were sent out to organizational leaders, 134 were returned. Due to extensive missing data, 12 responses were omitted from the data set. The remaining nonprobability sample consisted of 122 leaders, representing a response rate of 78.21%. A meta-analysis on response rates, analyzing 175 studies in the fields of organizational and social studies, revealed an average response rate of 56% (SD = 19.50), varying between 10% and 96% (Baruch, 1999, p. 429). Looking at the present study, the response rate is high which may be due to the personal contacts established with gatekeepers prior to distributing the survey links.

With regard to the follower sample, 441 surveys were returned. Due to missing values, 69 observations were excluded from analysis. The final sample of followers contained 372 valid observations, resulting in an average of three followers per leader (3.05). The high number of incomplete cases might be due to the length of the survey and workload of followers. Work conducted by Fenton-O’Creevy (1996) has found that the most common reason for non-completion of surveys (28%) is that respondents are too busy.

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