Home Business & Finance Distance Leadership in International Corporations: Why Organizations Struggle when Distances Grow
Relationship quality was assessed with seven items of the LMX-7 scale by Graen and Uhl-Bien (1995). Response schemes varied from item to item, yet all items were poled left-negative to fit the structure of the continuing questionnaire. Participants were able to rate statements on a scale ranging from 1 to 5.
Means, standard deviations, skewness, and kurtosis were computed. Follower ratings indicated a rather high mean score with a low variance (M = 3.70, SD = 0.70). The lowest mean was retrieved by item 5 (“Again, regardless of the amount of formal authority your leader has, what are the chances that he/she would ‘bail you out’ at his/her expense?”) which accounted for a mean value of 3.38 (SD = 0.97). The highest mean (M = 3.87, SD = 0.89) was achieved in response to statement number 6 (“I have enough confidence in my leader that I would defend and justify his/her decision if he/she were not present to do so”).
Cronbach’s alpha for the LMX-7 revealed a score of a = .90, which is regarded as a very good indicator for internal consistency. Mean inter-item correlations resided between .54 and .68, slightly above the suggested range by Clark and Watson (1995). A summary of descriptive statistics of followers’ assessment of LMX is displayed in Table 12.
Table 12. Scale Statistics for Relationship Quality
Note. Standard error of skewness = .126. Standard error of kurtosis = .252.
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