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Multiple linear regression, moderation, and mediation analyses were conducted to test hypotheses. In total, eight hypotheses have been subject to analysis of which three were accepted (H1.3, H2.3, H2.4), three partially accepted (H1.1, H2.1, H2.5), and two rejected (H1.2, H2.2). Looking at direct effects of perceived leadership behavior on follower self-leadership, only transactional leadership revealed statistically significant influences. None of the three dimensions of FRL showed further direct effects on follower performance. Yet, self-leadership revealed some positive direct effects on follower performance. For assessment of moderating and mediating influences of distance dimensions, physical distance was found to be moderating the relationship between transformational and passive leadership, and follower self-leadership strategies. Furthermore, negative direct effects on followers’ perceptions of relationship quality could be detected. Testing mediating effects of relationship quality, the influences of transformational and passive leadership were found to be fully mediated by the degree of relationship quality. Transactional leadership still revealed indirect effects on relationship quality. For the last distance dimension, leader-follower interaction frequency, regression analysis discovered moderating effects on the influence of transformational leadership on follower performance. If leader and followers communicated frequently, transformational leadership predicted follower performance.

Table 28. Summary of Hypotheses

#

Hypotheses

Accepted

Partially

accepted Rejected

1

Direct effects of leadership behavior on follower self-leadership and performance

1.1

Transformational leadership and transactional leadership behavior both predict positive follower self-leadership, whereas passive leadership behavior predicts negative follower self-leadership.

V

1.2

Transformational leadership and transactional leadership behavior both predict positive follower performance, whereas passive leadership behavior predicts negative follower performance.

V

1.3

Follower self-leadership strategies have a direct positive effect on follower performance.

V

2

Moderation and mediation effects of distance on the leader-follower relationship

2.1

Physical distance negatively moderates the influence of leadership behavior on follower self-leadership strategies.

V

2.2

Physical distance negatively moderates the influence of leadership behavior on follower performance.

V

2.3

Physical distance does show negative effects on the quality of relationship.

V

2.4

Relationship quality mediates the influence of leadership behavior on follower performance.

V

2.5

Interaction frequency positively moderates the influence of transformational leadership and transactional leadership behavior on follower performance.

V

 
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