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Driver 2: The Ever-Evolving Emergences, Roles, and Responsibilities of the Engineering Profession

It is argued that the definition of engineering should be expanded to cover the emerging trends and roles of modern and future engineering (Tech 2011). Felder (1998) indicates that an engineer with technical knowledge only is no longer sufficient to solve the new complex and interdisciplinary problems. Twenty-first-century engineers are expected to invent solutions to “grand challenges” which are global in nature, such as poverty, health, environmental concerns, housing, food preservation, and political instability (Klein-gardner 2011; NSB

2007; King 2008). Furthermore, they need to understand global markets and business practices; understand global ethical, safety, and security standards; have cultural, social, and political awareness (Chang et al. 2009; Patil and Codner 2008; Klein-gardner 2011), and pay attention to economic, environmental, political, and social constrains while developing solutions for their future problems (Calfee 2009; Mishra 2010). Chang et al. (2009) have stressed that global engineers “need to become more aware of and responsible about their societal problems, investigate them, and put innovative solutions”.

Engineering/STEM graduates of twenty-first century are not only demanded for technical and scientific careers, but also started to play essential roles in non-traditional fields such as business, finance, management, policy, and social studies.

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