Driver 4: Compliance with the Generic Needs of KBSs and iKBEs
One major contributor to the transformative shift of considerations of needed skills of engineering graduates is the requirements of knowledge-based societies (KBS) and economies (iKBE) (Male and Chapman 2005). Tryggvason and Apelian (2006) refer to the emergence of engineers’ roles during the last two centuries as follows: 1—the professional engineer: nineteenth and first half of twentieth century; 2—the scientific engineer: second half of the twentieth century; and 3—the entrepreneurial engineer: twenty-first century. Entrepreneurial engineers are engines of innovations that are driving high value-adding economic growth of twenty-first-century Innovation and Knowledge Based Economies and nations. iKBE or KBS generic skills and competencies such as communication, lifelong learning, and adaptability have also become frequently cited in the literature on required skills and attributes for engineers (NAE 2004, 2005; RAE 2007). It is worth mentioning that certain core engineering skills such as problem-solving and analytical thinking became essential even for those who would study and work in non-engineering disciplines; such core engineering skills are becoming frequently cited as necessary generic skills for the workforce and citizens of KBSs and iKBEs.