Home Engineering Engineering and Technology Talent for Innovation and Knowledge-Based Economies: Competencies, Leadership, and a Roadmap for Implementation
Literature Review Methodology
This is a literature review aimed at identifying related studies on competencies and skills needed of twenty-first-century engineers. A number of relevant keywords were utilized in the search of related literature in Google Scholar, as well as research databases such as ScienceDirect and IEEE Explore. Keywords were included, for example “future engineers”, “engineers of 2020”, “engineering employability skills and attributes”, “graduates’ attributes”, “twenty-first-century skills”, “global engineer”, “generic skills”, and “graduate employability”.
The focus of the scan was on identification of key current and futures engineers’ skills set, employability skills, skills set requirements of citizens of iKBEs and KBSs, different research methodologies that have been followed, and any developed frameworks and global approaches utilized to integrate these skills in education and training.
More than 500 studies, reports, and research papers were found. After initial filtering, about 190 of the found documents have been selected for full review. The reviewed articles included about 150 research papers and 40 reports. The majority of studies and reports had a specific national context, such as
Some of the other reviewed studies have had an international or continental scope (Continental 2006; ERT 1995; SHAH 2009). No studies were found from the Gulf Corporation Council (GCC), Middle East, or North Africa.
All reported skills in the reviewed studies have been synthesized. A content analysis approach was utilized for systematically categorizing them and also for generating a generic definition for each category. Content analysis is an observational research technique that can be used to systematically evaluate any content in order to identify the scripts in terms of various categories (Li and Cavusgil 1995; Kolbe and Burnett 1991; Holsti 1969). Definitions, terminologies, and types of skills and attributes were synthesized, and a relevant conceptual framework has been developed.
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