This chapter provided a comprehensive literature review on the ever-evolving subject of needs of twenty-first-century engineers. The review spans over significant number of studies worldwide, and no relevant investigation has been detected in the Middle East or the GCC area. Synthesis of the literature led to development of a four-dimensional model of engineering skills that consist totally of 22 competencies. The model has been utilized in subsequent stages of the investigation in order to solicit perspectives of stakeholders in any country of investigation, for current and emergent needs of engineering talent attributes. Furthermore, other systematic models representing global twenty-first-century engineering talent skills and competency development models have been developed and described in detail.
Synthesis of the literature on needs of engineering education system for twenty-first-century engineering graduates has been provided. The next chapter provides further details on leadership and engineering.