There are many models of leadership that were investigated and argued in many studies such as transformational leadership, servant leadership, ethical leadership, and authentic leadership. In this section, we will be discussing a few examples of these models.
Transformational leaders are those who are able to inspire followers to change expectations, perceptions, and motivations to work towards common goals. A transformational leadership style is mainly based on leader’s personality traits and ability to energize challenging goals for followers, believing that they can do their best. Transformational leaders have 4 main personality traits, referred to as the
- 4 I’s transformational leadership model (Bass and Riggio 2008).
- • Idealized Influence (II)—the leader serves as an ideal role model for followers,
- • Inspirational Motivation (IM)—transformational leaders have the ability to inspire and motivate followers. Combined, these first two I’s are what constitute the transformational leader’s charisma.
- • Individualized Consideration (IC)—Transformational leaders demonstrate genuine concern for the needs and feelings of the followers. This personal attention to each follower is a key element in bringing out their very best efforts.
- • Intellectual Stimulation (IS)—the leader challenges followers to be innovative and creative.