Main Findings of the UBC
Several findings were identified, such as the following:
- 1. UBC is crucial for creating a knowledge society; see Fig. 4.3 for direct and indirect benefits leading to a iKBE/KBS
- 2. There are eight types of UBC that are more direct, measurable, and having promotable benefits (e.g. collaboration in R&D and mobility of students in internships);
- 3. Situational factors such as age, previous experience with industry, and gender have contributions to UBC;
- 4. Lack of funding and excess of bureaucracy at all levels are the highest barriers to UBC;
- 5. Personal relationships drive UBC, and it is people-driven;
- 6. The creation and development of supporting mechanisms is critical for UBC.
The UBC Ecosystem
The UBC ecosystem is composed of 6 main strategic components (key stakeholders, supporting mechanisms, influencing factors, university-business cooperation, outcomes for HEIs/academics/industry, and finally knowledge society), see Fig. 4.3. Effective implementation of the previous levels will lead to
Fig. 4.3 Strategic components of UBC ecosystem and levels/dimensions; source taken from Davey (2011)
socio-economic development, or what is called a Knowledge-Based Society and Economy. The UBC ecosystem is composed of several levels (Davey 2011):
• Result and Outcome Level/Dimension: where the extent of UBC is visible, this level contains 8 main different types of UBC that can be undertaken (1— Collaboration in R&D, 2—mobility of academics, 3—mobility of students, 4— commercialization of R&D results, 5—curriculum development and delivery, 6 —lifelong learning, 7—entrepreneurship, and 8—governance)
- • Factor Levels/Dimension: where factors influencing UBC efforts are located, it contains all the influencing factors which need to be considered in any attempt to affect UBC; these factors are as follows: 1—benefits, 2—drivers, 3—barriers, and 4—situational factors
- • Action Level/Dimension: where actions to stimulate UBC occurs, this area contains four pillars where actions to influence the extent of UBC occur (1 — strategies, 2—organizational structure and approaches, 3—operational activities, and 4—framework conditions).