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Temporal Control System

The current forecasting method, basically the projection method, may not be sufficient to lead to a desired state of engineers as projection is usually based on the current capabilities and current state of thinking. Instead of forward projection, a backward projection from future state (let us say in 2030) to various years backwards to current level, say 2016 state, can help planners to chart out plans that can be implemented in three levels:

Current (or so-called operational) plan (short-term): that can provide the results within two to three years, through improvements in some part of the curriculum.

Tactical plan (mid-term): that can be implemented within 5 years, for example promoting curriculum changes and mode of delivery such as design-based lecture delivery, and

Strategic plan (long term): for example, introducing industry-based courses at the higher levels, promoting interdisciplinary curriculum and research, introducing sandwich programmes by collaborating with industry, introducing entrepreneurship across the university education, and promoting start-ups and business development for self-employability.

A temporal control system composed of operational-tactical-strategic objectives is shown in Fig. 6.3.

Temporal control system; the system has multi-objectives

Fig. 6.3 Temporal control system; the system has multi-objectives: operation, tactical, and strategic

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