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A short course of lectures
«The handy philosophy answer book»

What is known about Aristotle's life?What is moral theory?How did W.V.O. Quine naturalize epistemology?How was Jonathan Swift opposed to Enlightenment values?Who was Friedrich Nietzsche?What was Edmund Husserl's doctrine of intentionality?What is Pierre-Simon Laplace's theory of probability?What was Wilfred Sellars' idea of functionalism?How did William Harvey discover the closed circulatory system?Maurice Merleau-Ponty What were the important themes in early twentieth century analytic philosophy?Logical positivismWho was Mikhail Bakunin?How did Sir Thomas More become a martyr?EARLY MODERN PHILOSOPHYWho were some of Robert Boyle's scientific influences?What were the main original ideas that were important to Johann Gottlieb Fichte's philosophy?RENAISSANCE HUMANISMWhat did Martin Heidegger mean by "ontology?"Who was Rudolf Carnap?What was Ludwig Wittgenstein's private language argument?What were the main ideas of the Pre-Socratics?Who were the key players in the theories and practice of them in the scientific revolution?What were Georg Simmel's thoughts on fashion and money?What is a scientific revolution according to Thomas Kuhn?What was William Hamilton's philosophy of the conditioned?What is the philosophical issue regarding biological race?Process Philosophy How was Vico's thought opposed to the Enlightenment?What were Averroes most noteworthy ideas?PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL THEORYWhat is American philosophy?Who was Galileo?What was Spinoza's philosophical goal?What was Edmund Husserl's phenomenological method?How do philosophers deal with ethical relativism?Is Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative different from the Golden Rule?What is the distinction between deep and shallow ecology?What were Emil Durkheim's main ideas?René Descartes What, besides ethics, is philosophical about environmentalism?What did Simone de Beauvoir mean by an ethics of ambiguity?What topics are addressed in Plato's middle works?How have second wave feminists addressed gender?Why did Martin Heidegger claim that existentialism was not a type of humanism?Hilary Putman What are primary qualities and secondary qualities?SEVENTEENTH CENTURY RATIONALISMWhat question does deep ecology pose for philosophers?What was Rousseau's life like?What is the connection between religion and philosophy?What was Arthur Schopenhauer's moral system?How was skepticism related to the scientific revolution?Alexius Meinong What was Thomas Hobbes life like?Who was W.V.O. Quine?What exactly was Parmendides reasoning in his claims about the One?Which of these new philosophies are fads and which will last?What is pragmatism?How did Pyrrhonic skepticism affect early modern natural philosophy?What was Vico's cyclical idea of history?What is experimental philosophy?Is Jürgen Habermas' work wholly theoretical?Philosophy of languageHow did the Islamic religion begin?What was Hobbes' belief about free will?How were Friedrich Schilling's views of culture aesthetic?Who was John Dewey?Who was Richard Rorty?How is Boethius' Consolation of Philosophy both stoic and Neoplatonic?What are the three waves of feminism according to feminist philosophers?What did Hippias contribute to learning?For what is Luce Iragary most famous?Who was Pierre-Simon Laplace?What were Leibniz's views on embryology?Why did Heraclitus disagree with Pythagoras about the essence of life?Early american philosophical strainsMICHEL DE MONTAIGNE Analytic ethicsWho is Jürgen Habermas?How did Nicolas Malebranche react to Descartes' mind-body problem?What was the importance of Jewish philosophy in medieval thought?What was William James' pragmatic epistemology?What was anti-Aristotelianism?Who was St. Teresa and what were her main ideas?What was Ayn Rand's virtue of selfishness?What are some facts about Maurice Merleau-Ponty's life and career?NINETEENTH CENTURY EMPIRICISM What was Paul Feyerabend's view of science?How do the Churchlands account for perceptions of meaning?What were John Stuart Mill's views on marriage?What was individually noteworthy about Diderot, d'Alembert, Holbach, and Montesquieu?Who was Nicolas Malebranche?What was David Hume's great ambition in philosophy?What does philosophy have to do with ordinary life?The Scholastics Why did Vico oppose Cartesianism?Johann Gottlieb Fichte How does Martin Heidegger embarrass the Heideggerians?NINETEENTH CENTURY PHILOSOPHYHow did Ptolemy's view of the solar system become the accepted theory?What are the major works of Thomas Aquinas?What was C.I. Lewis' form of pragmatism?Who is Jerry Fodor?What did Zarathustra say in Friedrich Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra?Who was Jacques Lacan?How did ideas about life change when it came to the philosophy of science?What was Charles Peirce's pragmaticism?Who was Maurice Merleau-Ponty?What were Soren Kierkegaard's "stages of life's way"?What was Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative?What was original about Locke's thoughts concerning education?Who was Edith Stein?Sociology and Philosophy What was Hobbes' theory of government in Leviathan?How well were Ockam's ideas first received?How did Hull House fulfill pragmatist ideals of knowledge?Did the Eastern philosophers interact much with the St. Louis Hegelians?Truth-Functional Logic and Logical Atomism Who was C.I. Lewis?What happened in Athens after both Plato and Aristotle were gone?WILLIAM WHEWELLDid Vico interact with other Enlightenment thinkers over his lifetime?How did Descartes solve his evil demon hypothesis?Why is gender an important topic in studies of early modern philosophy?What is ethical (or moral) relativism?JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAUBuddhism and ConfucianismWhat was so revolutionary about the scientific revolution?What is the origin of materialism, Marxism, and anarchism in the modern era?What were Edmund Burke's political background and beliefs?What did Edward Gibbon contribute?What was the emotivist theory of ethics?What is philosophy of film?What were Hippocrates' accomplishments and influence?Social DarwinismWho was Jean-Paul Sartre?Who was Imre Lakatos?Who was Josiah Royce?AnarchismWhat were Plato's dialogues?What is non-Euclidian geometry?What did John Stuart Mill think about Jeremy Bentham's "pleasure principle"?THE ENLIGHTENMENT PERIODWhat did William Whewell mean by the sensationalistic school?What was Richard Rorty's concept of philosophy?What was Otto Neurath's main philosophical contribution?Who was Albertus Magnus?What was the intellectual merit of de Sade's endeavors?What was John Dewey's metaphysics?What was Williams James' main contribution to psychology?What are some highlights of Friedrich Hegel's career?Who was Margaret Fuller?What was the purpose of Descartes' Meditations?Why was John Stuart Mill important?Would marriage have changed the emotional lives of seventeenth century philosophers?How was Hume a man of contradictions?Does philosophy only deal with the big questions about life and the universe?What were the goals of activist second wave feminists?What were Isaiah Berlin's two concepts of liberty?What is a syllogism?What is Epicureanism?What are some of the current issues in Native American philosophy?Who was Leibniz?Who was Ferdinand de Saussure?What was W.V.O. Quine's view of existence?Who was Jonathan Edwards?Who was Rousseau?What has been Arne Naess' philosophical influence?What characterizes nineteenth century philosophy as a foundation for current philosophical thought?What are the two types of ideas according to George Berkeley?What are some key events for which Socrates is often remembered?Why did John Stuart Mill distrust majority rule?What advances were made during the nineteenth century concerning the philosophy of mathematics and logic?Who was Francisco Suârez?Who is Luce Irigaray?What is feminism and feminist philosophy?Why is materialism important regarding the analytic philosophy of mind?Is philosophy only found in the West?What is the causal theory of meaning?What are the major themes in new philosophy?When and how did the scientific revolution begin?What is consequentialism?What was Immanuel Kant's theory of the self?Who was J.L. Austin?Why are LBGT studies and queer theory part of philosophy now?What was Philippa Foot's contribution to virtue ethics?What did Friedrich Nietzsche mean by power?What was The One?What were Aquinas' views on science?Was military invasion of Europe part of the religious practice of Islam during the medieval period?William James What are the four causes as defined by Aristotle?Who was Hans Reichenbach?Who was Johannes Scotus Eriugena?Who was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon?Who was Johann Gottlieb Fichte?Did nineteenth-century American philosophers directly take up evolution?Was Bacon's life as direct and clear as his ideas?What was St. Augustine's role at the beginning of medieval philosophy?How important was Joseph-Marie de Maistre?Other continental traditionsWhat was Gottlob Frege's main innovation in the philosophy of logic?What is truth-functional logic?What is deconstructionism?Where does the human mind fit into Hegel's idealism?What is the "problem of the criterion" as put forth by Montaigne?Other Logicians Is there a sharp distinction between Enlightenment philosophers and other intellectuals?THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Who was Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach?Did other's share the mystical aspects of Nicolaus Copernicus' system?What are the Socratic paradoxes?What was Hobbes' idea of the social contract?What was Bernard Bosanquet's aesthetic theory?What was Karl Popper's notion of the open society?Friedrich Nietzsche Richard Rorty What is Noam Chomsky's own theory of language?How did Locke use natural law to construct a theory of government?What is African American philosophy?Who was Bernard Bosanquet?What is Socratic irony?Who was Charles Sanders Peirce?Who was Gottlob Frege?Did Boyle's materialism mean he was an atheist?Who was Friedrich Schelling?How did non-Euclidian geometry affect other fields?What was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's lasting influence?How did Alain Locke apply pragmatism to issues of race and culture?What was dogmatism?Who was A.J. Ayer?What were the emotional conditions in Soren Kierkegaard's life?Is there interest in the Marquis de Sade today?Who was Jules Henri Poincare?What did the dialogue between the Pre-Socratics reveal about their philosophy?Who were the St. Louis Hegelians?How did medicine progress after Hippocrates?How did Arthur Schopenhauer think we could best become aware of noumenal will?What is process philosophy?What were the main facts about Whewell's life?What was Friedrich Nietzsche's idea of a "gay science?"What is Jerry Fodor's modular theory of mind?What is hedonic calculus?COUNTER-ENLIGHTENMENT FIGURESWhat was Berkeley's critique of Newtonian science?CRITICAL THEORY AND STRUCTURALISMWho was Gilbert Ryle and what was his thesis?How did Edmund Husserl distinguish between two types of the self?What did George Berkeley think of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities?Was Diotima of Mantinea a real or fictional female philosopher?Who was Wilfred Sellars?Was F.H. Bradley also an idealist?Why has there been a third wave in feminism?How do we know the One?What was Ayn Rand's philosophy of objectivism?What was Berkeley's answer to whether a tree falling in the forest makes a sound?Who was René Descartes?What kind of a materialist was Ludwig Feuerbach?What is philosophy of technology?Who were René Descartes' royal female correspondents?What is known about Leibniz's life?What did Paracelsus contribute to alchemy?Who was Friedrich Engels?How Did G.E. Moore develop his common sense philosophy?What is the problem caused by intersectionality?What did Aquinas think about the soul?Who was Hilary Putnam?GEORGE BERKELEYWhat are Aristotle's 10 categories of existing things?Has Nicolaus Copernicus' theory withstood the test of time?How did Montaigne convey his ideas?What were the main elements of Newton's scientific system and what did they have to do with God?Who was Kurt Godel?How did William Whewell think consilience, coherence, and predictions should be applied to test theories?What was Charles Peirce's philosophical system?Who was Aspasia of Miletus?What is behaviorism?ANCIENT PHILOSOPHYLudwig Wittgenstein What are the philosophical issues about racial identity?Who was Alfred North Whitehead?When discussing religious belief, which did Montaigne consider to be more important: reason or faith?Who was Alexius Meinong?Was anything absolutely wrong in Aristotle's view?What is anarchism?Did Gottlob Frege succeed in reducing mathematics to logic?Did Asclepigenia suffer the same fate as Hypatia?What did Proclus contribute to Neoplatonism?How is philosophy related to other fields?How did feminist epistemology develop?Why is Maimonides' Guide of the Perplexed still considered a great philosophical text?How did Henri Bergson relate real time to free will?How are existentialism and phenomenology historically related?Who was William James?What were the shared goals of the St. Louis Hegelians?Was Luce Irigaray's Speculum of the Other Woman socially relevant?Was nineteenth century evolutionary thought connected to ideas of progress?Noam ChomskyHow did Alan Sokal attack postmodernism?PHENOMENOLOGYHow did Thomas Nagel object to functionalism?What did the religious and humanist existentialists contribute?What are some of Peter Singer's views?THE PHILOSOPHES Who was Soren Kierkegaard?Was there only one kind of religious life for Soren Kierkegaard?What are some other interesting facts about A.J. Ayer's life and career?Other trends in new philosophyWho was Louis Althusser?How did Peter Lombard answer his question of whether God was the cause of evil and sin?Did Sigmund Freud analyze himself?Why did philosophy start in ancient Greece?How did Spinoza consider good and evil?What was medieval philosophy?Who were the New England Transcendentalists?What are some highlights of Johann Gottlieb Fichte's career?What is Catherine MacKinnon's contribution to second wave feminist political philosophy?Who was George Berkeley?What is the philosophy of biology?What is the method behind ordinary language philosophy?What did Friedrich Nietzsche mean by "the birth of tragedy?"What did St. Anselm of Canterbury begin?Is there or has there been an African philosophy?What was The Dial?What did George Berkeley mean when he said, "To be is to be perceived"?Was Montaigne the only skeptical philosopher to reason in this Pyrrhonnic way?What did Prodicus tell his audiences?How is philosophy different from other intellectual pursuits?MEDIEVAL PHILOSOPHY Who was Jane Addams?Why are Immanuel Kant's epistemology and metaphysics transcendental?What was William Whewell's theory of induction?What was René Descartes' problem with the Inquisition?What were John Dewey's main philosophical ideas?How was A.J. Ayer a phenomenalist?What was Ralph Barton Perry's realism?What did Emil Durkheim contribute to the study of suicide?What ideals for scientists did the early Royal Society promote?What are some of Aristotle's works and what are they about?Was Copernicus' new theory purely scientific?IMMANUEL KANT How did Copernicus change the Ptolemaic system?What was Aristotle's theory of the virtues?Who was Karl Popper?How did Isaiah Berlin oppose Marxist historicism?What was logical atomism?Who was the Marquis de Sade?Who were the philosophical rationalists?What was Alasdair Maclntyre's contribution to virtue ethics?MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT AND WILLIAM GODWINWho was Max Weber?How and why was Locke's idea of the social contract different from Hobbes'?What is ethical egoism?What are some details of the Marquis de Sade's life?Who was Henry More?Who were Gilles Deleuze and Pierre-Félix Guattari?What world facts inform postmodernism?Critical Theorists What was Karl Popper's theory of falsification?What was Robert Boyle's atomic theory?What was Rosicrucianism?Latin American Philosophy What was George Berkeley's new theory of vision?What was Plato's Academy?Why was Averroés considered important by other philosophers?Can the problem of intersectionality be solved?Did Hume believe that we have free will?What are the qualities/characteristics of Friedrich Nietzsche's Overman?What did Aristotle think about government and politics?What was Karl Popper's contribution to philosophy of science?Soren Kierkegaard What was Locke's solution to the Cartesian mind-body problem?Edmund Husserl Where does the soul fit into Plotinus' system of Platonic entities?What do we know for sure about Plato's life?Who was Walter Benjamin?How did falsification work according to Karl Popper?What is grue?How did Leibniz define his principles?Charles Sanders Peirce What were Descartes' main ideas in Passions of the Soul?Who was William of Ockam?Who was John Rawls?Who was George Herbert Mead?How have Japanese, Chinese, and Indian philosophy recently entered Anglo-American philosophy?What was interesting about Voltaire's life?What is analytic philosophy?How did the Pyrrhonic skeptics alleviate dogmatism?What are the issues addressed by Latino-Latina/Hispanic-American philosophy?Has there been much progress in philosophy?What is epistemological rationalism?Who was Thomas Aquinas and what made him known as the greatest medieval philosopher?Who were the scholastics?What have been the two main subjects of Western philosophy?Who were the main early modern philosophers?Ordinary language philosophyWhat are some results of experimental philosophy?What are the pitfalls and promises of experimental philosophy?What are some highlights of Jane Addams' life that led her to found Hull House?What was W.V.O. Quine's attack on the analytic-synthetic distinction?How does Plato define a "just city" in his Republic?What is the Socratic method?Benedict de Spinoza What influence did Ludwig Feuerbach have on others?What was the Sidgwick's interest in the paranormal?How is environmentalism related to racial and international studies?What was Johann Gottlieb Fichte's political philosophy?How was Johann Gottlieb Fichte's idealism connected to freedom?What reforms did Cesare Beccaria advocate?Who was Avicenna?What were Burke's main ideas in political theory?What are some details of Sigmund Freud's life that led him to his work?What are some important facts about Johann Gottlieb Fichte's career?What was Jean-Paul Sartre's version of existentialism?What were the ideas of the main religious existentialists?What was mitigated or moderate skepticism as explained by Pierre Gassendi?What did philosophers after Parmenides assert about the nature of appearance?How did Hume proceed philosophically to create his science of the mind?Jerry FodorDid Malebranche have a more extensive philosophy to support his theory of causation?Was Descartes a Cartesian?INTUITIONISM What is German idealism?Who was Herbert Spencer?How was Neoplatonism similar to Christianity?What happened to Locke during his life and what were some of his important publications?NEW PHILOSOPHYWho was Jean-François Lyotard?John LockeHow were virtue ethics rediscovered in analytic philosophy?Friedrich Schelling Why did Pierre Gassendi promote mitigated skepticism?Who was Jean Baudrillard?What was alchemy?THE CAMBRIDGE PLATONISTS Is Hegel's system purely abstract?What are Venn diagrams?What was Martin Heidegger's theory of time?What was Friedrich Hegel's system?Sigmund FreudWhich early American philosophical strains were most influential?Who were some important women philosophers from antiquity?What was Bentham's Principle of Utility?What is known about Immanuel Kant's life?Who was Benedict de Spinoza?What did Alfred North Whitehead think the world was composed of in reality?Did Malebranche lead an exciting life?Thomas AquinasHow are dogs like cynics?Who was Georg Simmel?How did William James come to develop pragmatism?What is feminist philosophy of science?What is fideism and what does it have to do with what Montaigne demonstrated about skepticism?Which Counter-Enlightenment figures had lasting effects on philosophy?What were Auguste Comte's sociological ideas?What were Arthur Schopenhauer's main ideas?EXISTENTIALISMWho were the early seventeenth century "free thinkers" after Montaigne?What were Bernard Bosanquet's main ideas concerning social philosophy?Why have existentialist philosophers claimed Dostoyevsky as one of their own?How were John Stuart Mill's views on women influential?Who were the "Right" and "Left" Hegelians?What was Cambridge Platonism?What is the difference between critical theory and structuralism?What is feminist reclamation?African American Philosophy Was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon a friend of Karl Marx?AMERICAN PHILOSOPHYAfro-centrism and African Philosophy Martin Heidegger What kind of a Marxist was Jean-Paul Sartre?What is existentialism?What were Alcmaeon's innovations in medicine?What was William James' pragmatic ethics?What was evolutionary thought like in America during the nineteenth century?What is Peter Abelard known for in philosophy?How did Ralph Waldo Emerson define transcendentalism?Was Newton an eccentric personality?What did Soren Kierkegaard deem his main vocation in life?Who was David Hume?What were the general ideas about women that were held by people in the seventeenth century?Who were the Pre-Socratics?ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHYPhilosophy of scienceHow did Max Weber connect Protestantism to capitalism?Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach What is distinctive about the practice of analytic philosophy?To whom is Berkeley's idealism perplexing?What was Francico Suârez's view of metaphysics?What is Fodor's language of thought hypothesis?What is phenomenalism?Other ExistentialistsWhat happened in analytic philosophy of science over the course of the twentieth century?Once the idols are eliminated what did this allow us to do, according to Bacon?What were some noteworthy advances in medicine during the scientific revolution?The Vienna CircleHow were Locke's ideas about substance related to his theory of knowledge?Who was Plotinus?What is Julia Kristeva's idea of the abject and the nature of women?How was Newton's system received?What was the analytic/synthetic distinction and why did C.I. Lewis need it?What aspects of Dostoevsky's life influenced his deep interest in human difficulty?Who was Gotthold Lessing?Who was Hypatia of Alexandria?What was Scottish Common Sense Philosophy?What is Dasein?What are some key facts about Charles Peirce's career and life?How did Friedrich Nietzsche's life presage his philosophy?What is French feminism?What were Maimonides' main intellectual contributions?What is ethical subjectivism?What were Plato's main ideas as presented and developed in his early dialogues?Who was Leo Strauss?What was Immanuel Kant's second formulation of the categorical imperative?Gottfried Wilhelm LeibnizWho was Sigmund Freud?What's the difference between the practice of philosophy and the subject of philosophy?How did political events after the decline of Greece change philosophy?Who was Moritz Schlick?What did Aquinas contribute to metaphysics in the non-religious sense?Feminist philosophyWhat religious issues are involved in environmental thought, pro and con?Who influenced George Berkeley?How did Imre Lakatos' research program reconcile Popper and Kuhn's work?What are some of the main themes in philosophy of biology?Was Aquinas able to solve the conflict between faith and reason?Who were the main defenders of sense knowledge at the beginning of modern science?How did William James express his own will to believe?What are John Stuart Mill's progressive ideas in The Subjection of Women?How did Hilary Putnam agree with W.V.O. Quine on the analytic-synthetic distinction?Were all eighteenth-century thinkers in agreement with Enlightenment themes?Why were the Sophists important philosophically?Did Thomas Reid have his own ideas, in addition to saying why the empiricists were wrong?What is Roman stoicism?What are some examples of the perplexities Maimonides set out in his Guide of the Perplexed?What was G.E. Moore's naturalistic fallacy?MarxismGENDER AND EARLY MODERN WOMEN PHILOSOPHERSDAVID HUMEWhat is the big problem with Hume's reduction of the self to perceptions?Who was O.K. Bouwsma?What is philosophical about feminist philosophy?Who was Queen Christina and why was she important in Descartes' life?Who was William Hamilton?Who were Max Horkheimer and Theodore Adorno?What did Francis Bacon contribute to the scientific revolution?What is philosophy?Who was Amos Bronson Alcott?How did Spinoza's system solve Cartesianism?What were W.V.O. Quine's most influential ideas?Did women object to this negative view of them in the seventeenth century?What were Rousseau's most influential ideas?What was Robert Nozick's response to John Rawls?Who was Pierre Gassendi?What did Descartes mean by "clear and distinct ideas"?How was George Berkeley's occasionalism distinctive?What general philosophical problems does environmentalism pose?What do critics of the deep ecological and animal value views claim?What was the reaction to Burton's The Anatomy of Melancholy?What was Jean-François Lyotard's view of postmodernism?Francisco SuArezHow did René Descartes' philosophical work begin?What was Vico's new view of history as knowledge?Did Auguste Comte believe in altruism?What was philosophical about the thought of Desiderius Erasmus?What did Maurice Merleau-Ponty mean by a "phenomenology of perception"?Was Alexius Meinong serious about nonexistent objects?Why is the unity or commonality of women important?What was Bacon's influence?SOCRATESHow is sociology related to philosophy?What was Pico Della Mirandola known for?Who was H.P. Grice?Who was Marie-Luise Enckendorf?Franz Brentano Who were the Sophists?What was Soren Kierkegaard's burning question?How did James Martineau make Immanuel Kant's metaphysics religious?What was W.V.O. Quine's holistic view of knowledge?How was G.E. Moore a realist?How did the St. Louis Hegelians apply their philosophy?What was Peter Lombard's contribution to medieval philosophy?Who was Erich Fromm?Who were the Cambridge Neoplatonists?What is anarchism?What are the Pyrrhonic tropes?Pragmatism and process philosophyHow have consequentialists responded to criticism?Was Immanuel Kant an important figure of the Enlightenment?What was Franz Brentano's main contribution to empirical psychology?What is continental philosophy?What was the Frankfurt School?How did Neoplatonism become popular?What was G.E. Moore's common sense philosophy?What are some interesting facts about William James' life?Has science removed all of the mystery of life?Islam's InfluenceEpistemology and metaphysics after logical positivismWhat was Alexius Meinong's theory of value?What did Plato mean by the divided line?What is Sufism?How was Simone de Beauvoir influential as a feminist?What was Henry David Thoreau's philosophical contribution?What was Robert Nozick's own political theory?Who was Tenskwatawa?GREEK PRE-SOCRATICSWhy is philosophy important?What was Thales' contribution as the first philosopher in Western history?Who was Robert Nozick?Why did philosophers become interested in mathematics, geometry, and logic, during the nineteenth century?What was Immanuel Kant's notion of synthetic a priori knowledge?Who was G.E. Moore?How was John Duns Scotus' work different from Thomas Aquinas'?GERMAN IDEALISMWhat was the Invisible College?What are the distinctive methods of postmodern philosophy?Who was Ayn Rand?What is the Tao ?What was An Essay in Defense of the Female Sex?What was new about the thinking of the Pre-Socratics?What is Latin American philosophy?What was philosophically significant about nineteenth-century psychology and social theory?CONTINENTAL PHILOSOPHYWhat are these various specializations and subfields of philosophy?Who is Angela Davis?What was Michel Foucault's method for forming his cultural criticism?C.I. Lewis What is distinctive about analytical political philosophy?What was Noam Chomsky's argument against behaviorism?What was Jean-Paul Sartre's basis for his idea of freedom?How was Giambattista Vico a unique philosopher of his time?What were some of Leibniz's original contributions to philosophy?Who was Karl Marx?What was John Rawls' theory of justice?What are the other American philosophies?Who was Themistocles?Did Socrates really exist?What was the Athenian school of Neoplatonism?Who was Robert Boyle?What was Immanuel Kant's Copernican Revolution?What was Mary Astell's contribution to early modern philosophy?Who was Friedrich Hegel?Who was Emil Durkheim?Herbert SpencerNEOPLATONISM Who was Ralph Waldo Emerson?How were nineteenth century German idealists different from Plato or George Berkeley?What was Immanuel Kant's proof of God's existence?Who was Isaiah Berlin?What were Wollstonecraft's theoretical innovations?What was Protagoras famous for?What was Gottlob Frege's landmark insight about meaning?What was Anaxagoras' idea about the Mind?George Herbert Mead Arthur Schopenhauer How did John Searle disagree with Alan Mathison Turing?What was John Stuart Mill's formulation of utilitarianism?What was some of the Catholic response to Martin Luther's dogmatism?Why was René Descartes' idea of substance a problem for the empiricists?Did Galileo contribute more than a defense of Copernicus to science and philosophy?When did philosophy begin?What are academic and Pyrrhonic skepticism?Who was Henry Sidgwick?What was William Whewell's intuitionist moral philosophy?Were Pyrrhonic skeptics anxious about the impossibility of knowledge?What was Hume's problem of induction?How did Gottlob Frege attempt to reduce mathematics to logic?Nicolas Malebranche What was original in Jonathan Edwards' view of God?What was disturbing about David Hume's analysis of causation?How did John Stuart Mill define the difference between higher and lower pleasures?Who were the philosophes?What are some key facts about Edmund Burke's life?Who was F.H. Bradley?HELLENISTIC AND ROMAN PHILOSOPHYHow did George Berkeley's theory of vision relate to the concept of matter and physical existence?Jane Addams Who was Norman Malcolm?What has been important in second wave feminist political philosophy?What was the goal of the encyclopedists?What were Bentham's life and career like?What happened that affected empiricism in the nineteenth century?What is Buddhism?Who was Frederick Douglass?What are some of John Stuart Mill's influential publications?What was meant by "reason" during the Enlightenment?What are some other notable works by Montaigne?Who was Isaac Newton?What is sense knowledge?What was Hilary Putnam's neo-pragmatism?Why was Adam Smith's work important?How did skepticism further arguments for faith and mysticism?What was the Native American philosophical tradition?Who was Boethius?Who was Antonio Gramsci?What is Catherine MacKinnon's argument against pornography?How did Derrida explain deconstructionism in his Of Grammatology?Environmental philosophy What was Friedrich Schelling's major thesis?Is philosophy just the beliefs and theories of individual philosophers?What kind of life did Ralph Waldo Emerson lead?Who was Claude Lévi-Strauss?What was the Enlightenment?What was the debate between the Phyrrhonian and academic skeptics?What are some important facts about Martin Heidegger's life?StructuralistsWas Michel Foucault an existentialist?How did race become important in feminist philosophy?Jürgen Habermas Who was Simone de Beauvoir?Who was Jacques Derrida?What was Marsilio Ficino's contribution to the spirit of the Renaissance?What was the influence of logical atomism?What were Grotius' influential ideas about natural law?Why was Pythagoras important?Was the Ptolemaic theory merely a matter of religious faith?Who is Daniel C. Dennett?What were the main themes and claims in classic African American literature?Bernard Bosanquet What was Greek wisdom?NEOPLATONISM THROUGH THE RENAISSANCEWhat was or is natural law?What is known about Corpernicus' life?Was Christianity the only religious influence on philosophy after the ancient period?Was Thomas More serious about his utopian vision?What is materialism?What was Ludwig Wittgenstein's major insight concerning ordinary language and philosophy?Why do some people consider Martin Heidegger to be an existentialist?What were the main ideas of the scientific revolution?More French Postmodern Philosophers What was new in Hume's views on religion?Who was Peter Kropotkin?What did Parmenides and his Eleatic school believe?What was Betham's main proposal for prison reform?Who were the early Neoplatonists?What was Bernard Bosanquet's idealist doctrine?What is analytic ethics?PLATOWhy was Thomas Reid important?Who was George Santayana?What was Hannah Arendt's political philosophy?What was new in metaphysics and epistemology after logical positivism?Native American Philosophy Who was Henri Bergson?Who was R. Hare?Who was Hannah Arendt?Who was William Godwin?What have Western philosophers recognized in Buddhism?G.E. Moore What were the new logic and four types of idols made famous by Francis Bacon's Novum Organum?What did Arthur Schopenhauer mean by his acronym WELT?What are Afro-centrism and the African Diaspora?What are the roots of St. Anselm's ontological argument?Who was Mary Wollstonecraft?For what is Heraclitus still famous?What was Gilles Deleuze like as a person?What was distinctive about Elizabeth Elstob?What was Richard Rorty's view of truth?What are some of the major philosophical arguments made in Meditations?Who was Jeremy Bentham?How were Ludwig Feuerbach's ideas received?John Dewey What was Auguste Comte's positivism?How did the Church react to Galileo's theories?How did environmental philosophy get started?What is Aristophanes' comedy The Clouds and how does it relate to Socrates?What were Thomas Aquinas' main original ideas?Who first came up with the concept of atoms?How is Christian philosophy different from Christian theology?What was Francis Bacon's New Atlantis about?Why aren't there any women philosophers from ancient Greece and Rome who became well known?SKEPTICISM AND NATURAL PHILOSOPHY Ralph Barton Perry How did Johannes Kepler and Tycho Brahe help complete the Copernican Revolution?What was A.J. Ayer's version of logical positivism?What makes the concerns of these historically disadvantaged groups part of philosophy?How did Denton Jacques Snider interpret Friedrich Hegel?In what way was St. Teresa of Avila a Renaissance figure?Why were "ideas" important to Berkeley?THE BASICSWhen did women philosophers first start to become recognized as part of philosophy?What did Pope Honorius III consider heretical about Johannes Scotus Eriugena's treatise?What are some key facts about John Dewey's life and career?What were Martin Heidegger's views on death?Did Plato change his philosophy as he grew older?What was new about Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's thought?Who was Ralph Barton Perry?Why has Noam Chomsky's theory of language been so influential?Other american philosophies Thomas Hobbes What happened to the founders of the St. Louis Philosophical Society?What did Anne Conway's physical pain have to do with her philosophy and religion?Who was Martin Heidegger?From what did Vico believe the cycles of history originated?ARISTOTLE What was skepticism?Did all nineteenth-century thinkers believe in progress?What was Social Darwinism?Was the Vienna Circle an actual organization?Josiah Royce How were alchemists regarded by their peers?What was Martin Heidegger's theory of space?Did Plato and Aristotle influence early Christian and medieval philosophy?What was George Santayana's ontology?What was Hobbes' solution to Descartes' mind-body problem?New England Transcendentalists What is the other minds problem in philosophy?What was Charles Peirce's fourth system?Why was Pyrrho important?What is Kepler famous for?What was the reaction of Pre-Socratic philosophers to Parmenides' monism?FRANCIS BACON AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONHow can there be "new" philosophy?Who were the natural philosophers?What did Ralph Waldo Emerson mean by the "over-soul"?How was Plotinus' system of thought expressed in the Enneads?What was Neoplatonism?In what ways did William Whewell disagree with Immanuel Kant?What did Gorgias say about thought versus existence?What did Augustine confess in Confessions?What was John Stuart Mill's view of logic and scientific methodology?What is early modern philosophy?What is the story of Descartes' life?What was Sigmund Freud's interpretation of hysteria?What did Friedrich Hegel think was the highest form of spirit?Who was P.F. Strawson?Who was Paul Feyerabend?What is ordinary language philosophy?Was John Stuart Mill a socialist or a capitalist?Who were the important philosophers of middle stoicism?What was Martin Heidegger's question concerning technology?How did Hobbes explain sensation, memory, imagination, thought, and emotion?What was Enlightenment philosophy?How did other philosophers and scientists react to Pierre Gassendi's views?What is metaphysical idealism?What have been the major trends in Latin American philosophy?What were the ideas of some of the humanist existentialists?How did Johannes Kepler's career develop?Who were the main Social Darwinists?Have some philosophers criticized consequentialism?Why was Aquinas called the "Angelic Doctor" by Catholics?Who was Michel Foucault?What were the common themes of the Enlightenment?W.V.O. Quine Who was Pyrrho of Elis?What has medicine got to do with the history of philosophy?What was Aristotle's main contribution to Western philosophy?What is the difference between ethics and morals?What is ethical naturalism?Fyodor DostoyevskySt. Louis HegeliansWhat were William James' theories concerning religion and free will?What was Alexius Meinong's psychological theory?How did Augustine support the theology of the Church with philosophy?What was William Whewell's fundamental antithesis of knowledge?What was Peter Kropokin's view of Darwinism in society?What were Friedrich Hegel's main ideas?What was Plato's metaphysical theory of forms?MaimonidesWhat was impressive about Averroés' life and work?What was Sigmund Freud's oedipal theory?JOHN STUART MILLDid the study of some of the sciences get their start in philosophy?What is verificationism?What have been the main themes in philosophical feminism?Did Aristotle think that morality had a purpose or "final cause"?What is Marxism?What is the difference between a moral system and a moral theory?What was Plato's view of love?Who was Ernest Nagel?What needed to be reconciled between Carl Popper and Thomas Kuhn?What were the main philosophical aspects of the scientific revolution?What are some of Friedrich Nietzsche's important works?How is environmentalism related to feminism?What was George Santayana's contribution to pragmaticism?What was the relevance of Plato's Laws to Plotinus and Gallienus?What are problems with functionalism as a theory of mind?What was Leibniz's monadology?Who were the Encyclopedists?Who was Arete of Cyrene?What was Empedocles' idea about the four elementsHow is environmental ethics a secular matter?What was the reaction to the Meditations?Who is Noam Chomsky?What was John Stuart Mill's final assessment of religious belief?What were Wollstonecraft's main political ideas?Jacques Derrida and Deconstructionism THOMAS REID AND JEREMY BENTHAM Why was the single status of early modern men of science and philosophy important?How did Peter Kropotkin come to form his life philosophy?What is mysterianism?Who was Herbert Marcuse?THE SOPHISTSWhat is moral conventionalism?MEDICINE AND PHILOSOPHYWhat was nineteenth century intuitionism?Did philosophy lead to the other sciences all at once?What happens after absolute knowledge is attained?What was Confucius' influence?What were Josiah Royce's ethical and religious views?What was Spinoza's philosophical system?What were some of Newton's career accomplishments?How did Mary Astell's life affect her written work?Friedrich Hegel What other continental traditions are new to Western philosophy?What are Jürgen Habermas' main ideas?What is Confucianism?Why was Montaigne important?Who is Ruth Barcan Marcus?How were Joseph-Marie de Maistre's ideas similar to Edmund Burke's?What were Ralph Waldo Emerson's requirements for a scholar?How did Anaximander seek to revise Thales' philosophy?What is the school of thought of Buddhism?Bertrand Russell Who was Auguste Comte?What is Native American philosophy?What was most important about Aristotle's work?What are the highlights of Alfred North Whitehead's career?What was Boyle's method of transdiction?Who was Franz Brentano?What is a meme?How did Nicolaus Copernicus change the world?Was Jonathan Edwards merciful toward sinners?What were some of John Stuart Mill's achievements?Analytic political philosophyWho was Edmund Husserl?Who was Alan Mathison Turing?Other Important Medieval PhilosophersWhat roles did others play in furthering Francis Bacon's ideas?Was Isaac Newton rewarded for his scientific discoveries?Which of the other Enlightenment thinkers were most directly relevant to philosophy?What was the most striking Native American contribution to American philosophy?What were William Whewell's main ideas?What is Daniel C. Dennett's philosophy of biology?Why was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon against women's rights?Who was Arthur Schopenhauer?Why was Bernardo Telesio called "the first of the moderns" by Francis Bacon?Who was William Whewell?What was Immanuel Kant's moral system?Who was Paracelsus?Who was Anne Conway?Who was Nelson Goodman?AUGUSTE COMTEHow did Anaximenes revise the theories of Anaximander?What were some of Josiah Royce's metaphysical ideas?What are some key facts about Edmund Husserl's life and career?Early twentieth century analytic philosophyWhat were Voltaire's main contributions to philosophy?JOHANNES KEPLER'S INFLUENCEWhat other accomplishments are attributed to Thales?Who was al-Ghazali?Who were the stoics and what did they believe?SEVENTEENTH CENTURY EMPIRICISM What were William James' main pragmatic interests?Who was James Martineau?Who was Sagoewatha?What did Wollstonecraft claim on behalf of women?What is the linguistic turn?Was Ralph Waldo Emerson an abolitionist?What did Henry Sidgwick contribute to moral theory?Who is Julia Kristeva?What was Arthur Schopenhauer's influence?Who are some Dark Ages philosophers who came after St. Augustine?Who was Thomas Kuhn?What is "the they"?How did lamblichus practice Neoplatonism?Did Anselm face objections to his ontological argument?What was Thomas Kuhn's paradigm theory?Was Boethius guilty or innocent of plotting against Theodoric the Great?PHILOSOPHY OF MATHEMATICS AND LOGICWhat was John Dewey's theory of art?Who was Thomas Hobbes?Did early Neoplatonism include women philosophers?Who was Otto Neurath?How did Pyrrhonic skepticism get its name?Why was John Locke important?Who was Voltaire?Who was Charles Hartshorne?Who has claimed that animals have rights?What was al-Kindi's main contribution to philosophy?How did Michel Foucault's philosophy develop?What was unusual about Hume's theory of the emotions?In a nutshell, what did Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels write in their philosophy?What were Herbert Spencer's ideas about evolution?Why were Locke's views on religion influential?What is environmentalism?How is Confucianism relevant to contemporary Western philosophy?What are the modules of the mind, according to Jerry Fodor?Postmodern philosophy What historical developments helped to start Renaissance humanism?What are some details of David Hume's life and career?What were Leo Strauss' main politically relevant ideas?What was Reichenbach's theory of logical empiricism?What kinds of jobs do philosophers have?Who was Alain Locke?What was Ralph Barton Perry's theory of value?Who is Hélène Cixous?What were Friedrich Nietzsche's views on religion?Has anyone succeeded in refuting Anselm's ontological argument?What is logical positivism?Did Rousseau support a free society?What have been the major themes and issues in African American philosophy?What are the main themes and influences in philosophy of technology?Who was Alfred Tarski?What did Thomas Reid believe about free will?How did the facts of Wollstonecraft's life obscure her work?What were the important ideas of the Sophists?Who was Princess Elizabeth?WOMEN PHILOSOPHERS IN ANCIENT GREECE AND ROMEWhat is eliminative materialism?How are psychology and philosophy related?Who were some female Pythagoreans?What did Thrasymachus think about the concept of justice?What was Alfred North Whitehead's process philosophy?Jean-Paul Sartre What were Voltaire's religious views?What is the connection between philosophy of mind and philosophy of language in analytic philosophy?Who was John Wisdom?MATERIALISM, MARXISM, AND ANARCHISTSDid Plato change his philosophical theory of forms?What was Spinoza's legacy?What did George Berkeley think of matter, extension, and other mainstays secured by René Descartes and refined by John Locke?What is ancient cynicism?What is the "problem of universals"?What are the main Pre-Socratic texts?How and why did Jewish and Islamic philosophy become part of the scholastic tradition?
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