The handy philosophy answer book
THE BASICSWhat is philosophy?When did philosophy begin?How is philosophy different from other intellectual pursuits?Why is philosophy important?Does philosophy only deal with the big questions about life and the universe?What have been the two main subjects of Western philosophy?What does philosophy have to do with ordinary life?What is the connection between religion and philosophy?What are these various specializations and subfields of philosophy?Did philosophy lead to the other sciences all at once?What's the difference between the practice of philosophy and the subject of philosophy?How is philosophy related to other fields?Did the study of some of the sciences get their start in philosophy?Is philosophy only found in the West?Is philosophy just the beliefs and theories of individual philosophers?Has there been much progress in philosophy?What kinds of jobs do philosophers have?ANCIENT PHILOSOPHYWhy did philosophy start in ancient Greece?What was Greek wisdom?GREEK PRE-SOCRATICSWho were the Pre-Socratics?What are the main Pre-Socratic texts?What was new about the thinking of the Pre-Socratics?What were the main ideas of the Pre-Socratics?What did the dialogue between the Pre-Socratics reveal about their philosophy?What was Thales' contribution as the first philosopher in Western history?What other accomplishments are attributed to Thales?How did Anaximander seek to revise Thales' philosophy?How did Anaximenes revise the theories of Anaximander?Why was Pythagoras important?Why did Heraclitus disagree with Pythagoras about the essence of life?For what is Heraclitus still famous?What did Parmenides and his Eleatic school believe?What exactly was Parmendides reasoning in his claims about the One?What did philosophers after Parmenides assert about the nature of appearance?What was the reaction of Pre-Socratic philosophers to Parmenides' monism?What was Empedocles' idea about the four elementsWhat was Anaxagoras' idea about the Mind?Who first came up with the concept of atoms?THE SOPHISTSWho were the Sophists?Why were the Sophists important philosophically?What were the important ideas of the Sophists?What was Protagoras famous for?What did Gorgias say about thought versus existence?Does Gorgias' conclusion that whatever is real cannot be thought make sense?What did Hippias contribute to learning?What did Prodicus tell his audiences?What did Thrasymachus think about the concept of justice?SOCRATESDid Socrates really exist?What are the Socratic paradoxes?What is Socratic irony?What are some key events for which Socrates is often remembered?What is the Socratic method?What is Aristophanes' comedy The Clouds and how does it relate to Socrates?PLATOWhat do we know for sure about Plato's life?What was Plato's Academy?What was Plato's metaphysical theory of forms?What were Plato's dialogues?What were Plato's main ideas as presented and developed in his early dialogues?What topics are addressed in Plato's middle works?How does Plato define a "just city" in his Republic?What did Plato mean by the divided line?Did Plato change his philosophy as he grew older?Did Plato change his philosophical theory of forms?What was Plato's view of love?ARISTOTLE What was Aristotle's main contribution to Western philosophy?What is known about Aristotle's life?What are some of Aristotle's works and what are they about?What was most important about Aristotle's work?What is a syllogism?What are Aristotle's 10 categories of existing things?What are the four causes as defined by Aristotle?What was Aristotle's theory of the virtues?Was anything absolutely wrong in Aristotle's view?Did Aristotle think that morality had a purpose or "final cause"?What did Aristotle think about government and politics?HELLENISTIC AND ROMAN PHILOSOPHYHow did political events after the decline of Greece change philosophy?What happened in Athens after both Plato and Aristotle were gone?What was skepticism?Who was Pyrrho of Elis?Why was Pyrrho important?What was the debate between the Phyrrhonian and academic skeptics?Who were the stoics and what did they believe?Who were the important philosophers of middle stoicism?What is Roman stoicism?What is Epicureanism?What is ancient cynicism?How are dogs like cynics?WOMEN PHILOSOPHERS IN ANCIENT GREECE AND ROMEWhy aren't there any women philosophers from ancient Greece and Rome who became well known?Who were some important women philosophers from antiquity?Who was Themistocles?Who were some female Pythagoreans?Who was Aspasia of Miletus?Who was Arete of Cyrene?Was Diotima of Mantinea a real or fictional female philosopher?When did women philosophers first start to become recognized as part of philosophy?NEOPLATONISM THROUGH THE RENAISSANCEDid Plato and Aristotle influence early Christian and medieval philosophy?Was Christianity the only religious influence on philosophy after the ancient period?NEOPLATONISM What was Neoplatonism?What was The One?How did Neoplatonism become popular?How was Neoplatonism similar to Christianity?Who were the early Neoplatonists?Who was Plotinus?What was the relevance of Plato's Laws to Plotinus and Gallienus?How was Plotinus' system of thought expressed in the Enneads?Where does the soul fit into Plotinus' system of Platonic entities?How do we know the One?How did lamblichus practice Neoplatonism?What was the Athenian school of Neoplatonism?What did Proclus contribute to Neoplatonism?Who was Boethius?What is the "problem of universals"?Was Boethius guilty or innocent of plotting against Theodoric the Great?How is Boethius' Consolation of Philosophy both stoic and Neoplatonic?Did early Neoplatonism include women philosophers?Who was Hypatia of Alexandria?Did Asclepigenia suffer the same fate as Hypatia?MEDIEVAL PHILOSOPHY What was medieval philosophy?How is Christian philosophy different from Christian theology?What was St. Augustine's role at the beginning of medieval philosophy?What did Augustine confess in Confessions?How did Augustine support the theology of the Church with philosophy?Who are some Dark Ages philosophers who came after St. Augustine?Who were the Encyclopedists?Who was Johannes Scotus Eriugena?What did Pope Honorius III consider heretical about Johannes Scotus Eriugena's treatise?The Scholastics Who were the scholastics?What did St. Anselm of Canterbury begin?Did Anselm face objections to his ontological argument?What are the roots of St. Anselm's ontological argument?Has anyone succeeded in refuting Anselm's ontological argument?What was Peter Lombard's contribution to medieval philosophy?How did Peter Lombard answer his question of whether God was the cause of evil and sin?What is Peter Abelard known for in philosophy?Islam's InfluenceHow and why did Jewish and Islamic philosophy become part of the scholastic tradition?How did the Islamic religion begin?Was military invasion of Europe part of the religious practice of Islam during the medieval period?What was al-Kindi's main contribution to philosophy?Who was Avicenna?Who was al-Ghazali?What is Sufism?Why was Averroés considered important by other philosophers?What was impressive about Averroés' life and work?What were Averroes most noteworthy ideas?MaimonidesWhat was the importance of Jewish philosophy in medieval thought?What were Maimonides' main intellectual contributions?Why is Maimonides' Guide of the Perplexed still considered a great philosophical text?What are some examples of the perplexities Maimonides set out in his Guide of the Perplexed?Thomas AquinasWho was Thomas Aquinas and what made him known as the greatest medieval philosopher?What are the major works of Thomas Aquinas?What were Thomas Aquinas' main original ideas?Was Aquinas able to solve the conflict between faith and reason?What were Aquinas' views on science?What did Aquinas think about the soul?Why was Aquinas called the "Angelic Doctor" by Catholics?What did Aquinas contribute to metaphysics in the non-religious sense?Other Important Medieval PhilosophersHow was John Duns Scotus' work different from Thomas Aquinas'?Who was Albertus Magnus?Who was William of Ockam?How well were Ockam's ideas first received?RENAISSANCE HUMANISMWhat historical developments helped to start Renaissance humanism?What was Marsilio Ficino's contribution to the spirit of the Renaissance?What was Pico Della Mirandola known for?What was philosophical about the thought of Desiderius Erasmus?Was Thomas More serious about his utopian vision?How did Sir Thomas More become a martyr?Why was Bernardo Telesio called "the first of the moderns" by Francis Bacon?Who was St. Teresa and what were her main ideas?In what way was St. Teresa of Avila a Renaissance figure?SKEPTICISM AND NATURAL PHILOSOPHY How was skepticism related to the scientific revolution?How did skepticism further arguments for faith and mysticism?Who were the natural philosophers?Who were the philosophical rationalists?MICHEL DE MONTAIGNE Why was Montaigne important?What is fideism and what does it have to do with what Montaigne demonstrated about skepticism?How did Montaigne convey his ideas?What are some other notable works by Montaigne?What is the "problem of the criterion" as put forth by Montaigne?When discussing religious belief, which did Montaigne consider to be more important: reason or faith?Was Montaigne the only skeptical philosopher to reason in this Pyrrhonnic way?What was dogmatism?What was some of the Catholic response to Martin Luther's dogmatism?What are academic and Pyrrhonic skepticism?How did Pyrrhonic skepticism get its name?Were Pyrrhonic skeptics anxious about the impossibility of knowledge?What are the Pyrrhonic tropes?How did the Pyrrhonic skeptics alleviate dogmatism?How did Pyrrhonic skepticism affect early modern natural philosophy?What is sense knowledge?Who were the main defenders of sense knowledge at the beginning of modern science?What was Rosicrucianism?Who were the early seventeenth century "free thinkers" after Montaigne?What was anti-Aristotelianism?Who was Pierre Gassendi?Why did Pierre Gassendi promote mitigated skepticism?What was mitigated or moderate skepticism as explained by Pierre Gassendi?How did other philosophers and scientists react to Pierre Gassendi's views?THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION When and how did the scientific revolution begin?What were the main ideas of the scientific revolution?Who were the key players in the theories and practice of them in the scientific revolution?What were the main philosophical aspects of the scientific revolution?What was so revolutionary about the scientific revolution?What is known about Corpernicus' life?How did Nicolaus Copernicus change the world?How did Ptolemy's view of the solar system become the accepted theory?Was the Ptolemaic theory merely a matter of religious faith?How did Copernicus change the Ptolemaic system?Was Copernicus' new theory purely scientific?Did other's share the mystical aspects of Nicolaus Copernicus' system?Has Nicolaus Copernicus' theory withstood the test of time?Who was Galileo?How did the Church react to Galileo's theories?Did Galileo contribute more than a defense of Copernicus to science and philosophy?JOHANNES KEPLER'S INFLUENCEHow did Johannes Kepler and Tycho Brahe help complete the Copernican Revolution?How did Johannes Kepler's career develop?What is Kepler famous for?FRANCIS BACON AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONWhat did Francis Bacon contribute to the scientific revolution?What were the new logic and four types of idols made famous by Francis Bacon's Novum Organum?Once the idols are eliminated what did this allow us to do, according to Bacon?What was Bacon's influence?Was Bacon's life as direct and clear as his ideas?What was Francis Bacon's New Atlantis about?What roles did others play in furthering Francis Bacon's ideas?What was the Invisible College?What ideals for scientists did the early Royal Society promote?Who was Robert Boyle?Who were some of Robert Boyle's scientific influences?What was Robert Boyle's atomic theory?What was Boyle's method of transdiction?Did Boyle's materialism mean he was an atheist?What are primary qualities and secondary qualities?Who was Isaac Newton?What were some of Newton's career accomplishments?Was Isaac Newton rewarded for his scientific discoveries?What were the main elements of Newton's scientific system and what did they have to do with God?How was Newton's system received?Was Newton an eccentric personality?MEDICINE AND PHILOSOPHYWhat has medicine got to do with the history of philosophy?What were Alcmaeon's innovations in medicine?What were Hippocrates' accomplishments and influence?How did medicine progress after Hippocrates?Who was Paracelsus?What was alchemy?How were alchemists regarded by their peers?What did Paracelsus contribute to alchemy?What were some noteworthy advances in medicine during the scientific revolution?How did William Harvey discover the closed circulatory system?What was the reaction to Burton's The Anatomy of Melancholy?EARLY MODERN PHILOSOPHYWhat is early modern philosophy?Who were the main early modern philosophers?What is epistemological rationalism?SEVENTEENTH CENTURY RATIONALISMFrancisco SuArezWho was Francisco Suârez?What was Francico Suârez's view of metaphysics?René Descartes Who was René Descartes?What is the story of Descartes' life?How did René Descartes' philosophical work begin?What was René Descartes' problem with the Inquisition?Who were René Descartes' royal female correspondents?Who was Princess Elizabeth?Who was Queen Christina and why was she important in Descartes' life?What did Descartes mean by "clear and distinct ideas"?What was the purpose of Descartes' Meditations?What are some of the major philosophical arguments made in Meditations?How did Descartes solve his evil demon hypothesis?Was Descartes a Cartesian?What were Descartes' main ideas in Passions of the Soul?What was the reaction to the Meditations?Why was René Descartes' idea of substance a problem for the empiricists?Benedict de Spinoza Who was Benedict de Spinoza?What was Spinoza's philosophical goal?What was Spinoza's philosophical system?How did Spinoza consider good and evil?How did Spinoza's system solve Cartesianism?What was Spinoza's legacy?Nicolas Malebranche Who was Nicolas Malebranche?How did Nicolas Malebranche react to Descartes' mind-body problem?Did Malebranche have a more extensive philosophy to support his theory of causation?Did Malebranche lead an exciting life?Gottfried Wilhelm LeibnizWho was Leibniz?What is known about Leibniz's life?What were Leibniz's views on embryology?What is metaphysical idealism?What were some of Leibniz's original contributions to philosophy?How did Leibniz define his principles?What was Leibniz's monadology?SEVENTEENTH CENTURY EMPIRICISM What was or is natural law?What were Grotius' influential ideas about natural law?Thomas Hobbes Who was Thomas Hobbes?What was Thomas Hobbes life like?What was Hobbes' solution to Descartes' mind-body problem?How did Hobbes explain sensation, memory, imagination, thought, and emotion?What was Hobbes' belief about free will?What was Hobbes' theory of government in Leviathan?What was Hobbes' idea of the social contract?John LockeWhy was John Locke important?What happened to Locke during his life and what were some of his important publications?How and why was Locke's idea of the social contract different from Hobbes'?How did Locke use natural law to construct a theory of government?What was Locke's solution to the Cartesian mind-body problem?How were Locke's ideas about substance related to his theory of knowledge?What was original about Locke's thoughts concerning education?Why were Locke's views on religion influential?THE CAMBRIDGE PLATONISTS What was Cambridge Platonism?Who were the Cambridge Neoplatonists?Who was Henry More?Who was Anne Conway?What did Anne Conway's physical pain have to do with her philosophy and religion?GENDER AND EARLY MODERN WOMEN PHILOSOPHERSWhy is gender an important topic in studies of early modern philosophy?Why was the single status of early modern men of science and philosophy important?Would marriage have changed the emotional lives of seventeenth century philosophers?What were the general ideas about women that were held by people in the seventeenth century?Did women object to this negative view of them in the seventeenth century?What was Mary Astell's contribution to early modern philosophy?How did Mary Astell's life affect her written work?What was distinctive about Elizabeth Elstob?What was An Essay in Defense of the Female Sex?THE ENLIGHTENMENT PERIODWhat was Enlightenment philosophy?What was the Enlightenment?What were the common themes of the Enlightenment?What was meant by "reason" during the Enlightenment?Is there a sharp distinction between Enlightenment philosophers and other intellectuals?Were all eighteenth-century thinkers in agreement with Enlightenment themes?GEORGE BERKELEYWho was George Berkeley?What was George Berkeley's new theory of vision?How did George Berkeley's theory of vision relate to the concept of matter and physical existence?To whom is Berkeley's idealism perplexing?What did George Berkeley mean when he said, "To be is to be perceived"?Why were "ideas" important to Berkeley?What are the two types of ideas according to George Berkeley?Who influenced George Berkeley?What did George Berkeley think of matter, extension, and other mainstays secured by René Descartes and refined by John Locke?How was George Berkeley's occasionalism distinctive?What did George Berkeley think of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities?What was Berkeley's answer to whether a tree falling in the forest makes a sound?What was Berkeley's critique of Newtonian science?DAVID HUMEWho was David Hume?What are some details of David Hume's life and career?What was David Hume's great ambition in philosophy?How did Hume proceed philosophically to create his science of the mind?What was disturbing about David Hume's analysis of causation?What was Hume's problem of induction?What is the big problem with Hume's reduction of the self to perceptions?What was new in Hume's views on religion?What was unusual about Hume's theory of the emotions?Did Hume believe that we have free will?How was Hume a man of contradictions?JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAUWho was Rousseau?What was Rousseau's life like?What were Rousseau's most influential ideas?Did Rousseau support a free society?THOMAS REID AND JEREMY BENTHAM Why was Thomas Reid important?Did Thomas Reid have his own ideas, in addition to saying why the empiricists were wrong?What did Thomas Reid believe about free will?Who was Jeremy Bentham?What were Bentham's life and career like?What was Bentham's Principle of Utility?What is hedonic calculus?What was Betham's main proposal for prison reform?IMMANUEL KANT Was Immanuel Kant an important figure of the Enlightenment?What is known about Immanuel Kant's life?Why are Immanuel Kant's epistemology and metaphysics transcendental?What was Immanuel Kant's Copernican Revolution?What was Immanuel Kant's notion of synthetic a priori knowledge?What was Immanuel Kant's moral system?What was Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative?Is Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative different from the Golden Rule?What was Immanuel Kant's second formulation of the categorical imperative?What was Immanuel Kant's theory of the self?What was Immanuel Kant's proof of God's existence?MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT AND WILLIAM GODWINWhich of the other Enlightenment thinkers were most directly relevant to philosophy?Who was Mary Wollstonecraft?What were Wollstonecraft's main political ideas?What did Wollstonecraft claim on behalf of women?What were Wollstonecraft's theoretical innovations?How did the facts of Wollstonecraft's life obscure her work?Who was William Godwin?THE PHILOSOPHES Who were the philosophes?What was the goal of the encyclopedists?What was individually noteworthy about Diderot, d'Alembert, Holbach, and Montesquieu?Why was Adam Smith's work important?What did Edward Gibbon contribute?Who was Gotthold Lessing?What reforms did Cesare Beccaria advocate?Who was Voltaire?What was interesting about Voltaire's life?What were Voltaire's main contributions to philosophy?What were Voltaire's religious views?Who was Jonathan Edwards?What was original in Jonathan Edwards' view of God?Was Jonathan Edwards merciful toward sinners?COUNTER-ENLIGHTENMENT FIGURESWhich Counter-Enlightenment figures had lasting effects on philosophy?How was Giambattista Vico a unique philosopher of his time?Did Vico interact with other Enlightenment thinkers over his lifetime?How was Vico's thought opposed to the Enlightenment?Why did Vico oppose Cartesianism?What was Vico's new view of history as knowledge?What was Vico's cyclical idea of history?From what did Vico believe the cycles of history originated?What were Edmund Burke's political background and beliefs?What are some key facts about Edmund Burke's life?What were Burke's main ideas in political theory?How were Joseph-Marie de Maistre's ideas similar to Edmund Burke's?How important was Joseph-Marie de Maistre?How was Jonathan Swift opposed to Enlightenment values?Who was the Marquis de Sade?What are some details of the Marquis de Sade's life?What was the intellectual merit of de Sade's endeavors?Is there interest in the Marquis de Sade today?NINETEENTH CENTURY PHILOSOPHYWhat characterizes nineteenth century philosophy as a foundation for current philosophical thought?NINETEENTH CENTURY EMPIRICISM What happened that affected empiricism in the nineteenth century?WILLIAM WHEWELLWho was William Whewell?What were the main facts about Whewell's life?What was William Whewell's fundamental antithesis of knowledge?What did William Whewell mean by the sensationalistic school?What were William Whewell's main ideas?In what ways did William Whewell disagree with Immanuel Kant?What was William Whewell's theory of induction?How did William Whewell think consilience, coherence, and predictions should be applied to test theories?JOHN STUART MILLWhy was John Stuart Mill important?What were some of John Stuart Mill's achievements?What are some of John Stuart Mill's influential publications?What did John Stuart Mill think about Jeremy Bentham's "pleasure principle"?How did John Stuart Mill define the difference between higher and lower pleasures?Was John Stuart Mill a socialist or a capitalist?Why did John Stuart Mill distrust majority rule?What was John Stuart Mill's formulation of utilitarianism?What was John Stuart Mill's final assessment of religious belief?What are John Stuart Mill's progressive ideas in The Subjection of Women?What were John Stuart Mill's views on marriage?How were John Stuart Mill's views on women influential?What was John Stuart Mill's view of logic and scientific methodology?AUGUSTE COMTEWho was Auguste Comte?What was Auguste Comte's positivism?What were Auguste Comte's sociological ideas?Did Auguste Comte believe in altruism?INTUITIONISM What was nineteenth century intuitionism?What was William Whewell's intuitionist moral philosophy?What was Scottish Common Sense Philosophy?Who was William Hamilton?What was William Hamilton's philosophy of the conditioned?Who was F.H. Bradley?Was F.H. Bradley also an idealist?Who was Henry Sidgwick?What was the Sidgwick's interest in the paranormal?What is moral theory?What did Henry Sidgwick contribute to moral theory?Who was James Martineau?How did James Martineau make Immanuel Kant's metaphysics religious?Who was Henri Bergson?How did Henri Bergson relate real time to free will?PHILOSOPHY OF MATHEMATICS AND LOGICWhy did philosophers become interested in mathematics, geometry, and logic, during the nineteenth century?What advances were made during the nineteenth century concerning the philosophy of mathematics and logic?Who was Pierre-Simon Laplace?What is Pierre-Simon Laplace's theory of probability?What is non-Euclidian geometry?How did non-Euclidian geometry affect other fields?What are Venn diagrams?Who was Jules Henri Poincare?Who was Gottlob Frege?What was Gottlob Frege's main innovation in the philosophy of logic?What was Gottlob Frege's landmark insight about meaning?How did Gottlob Frege attempt to reduce mathematics to logic?Did Gottlob Frege succeed in reducing mathematics to logic?GERMAN IDEALISMWhat is German idealism?How were nineteenth century German idealists different from Plato or George Berkeley?Johann Gottlieb Fichte Who was Johann Gottlieb Fichte?What are some highlights of Johann Gottlieb Fichte's career?What are some important facts about Johann Gottlieb Fichte's career?What were the main original ideas that were important to Johann Gottlieb Fichte's philosophy?How was Johann Gottlieb Fichte's idealism connected to freedom?What was Johann Gottlieb Fichte's political philosophy?Friedrich Schelling Who was Friedrich Schelling?What was Friedrich Schelling's major thesis?How were Friedrich Schilling's views of culture aesthetic?Friedrich Hegel Who was Friedrich Hegel?What are some highlights of Friedrich Hegel's career?What were Friedrich Hegel's main ideas?What was Friedrich Hegel's system?What happens after absolute knowledge is attained?Is Hegel's system purely abstract?Where does the human mind fit into Hegel's idealism?What did Friedrich Hegel think was the highest form of spirit?Who were the "Right" and "Left" Hegelians?Arthur Schopenhauer Who was Arthur Schopenhauer?What were Arthur Schopenhauer's main ideas?How did Arthur Schopenhauer think we could best become aware of noumenal will?What did Arthur Schopenhauer mean by his acronym WELT?What was Arthur Schopenhauer's moral system?What was Arthur Schopenhauer's influence?Bernard Bosanquet Who was Bernard Bosanquet?What was Bernard Bosanquet's idealist doctrine?What were Bernard Bosanquet's main ideas concerning social philosophy?What was Bernard Bosanquet's aesthetic theory?MATERIALISM, MARXISM, AND ANARCHISTSWhat is the origin of materialism, Marxism, and anarchism in the modern era?What is materialism?What is Marxism?What is anarchism?Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach Who was Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach?What kind of a materialist was Ludwig Feuerbach?How were Ludwig Feuerbach's ideas received?What influence did Ludwig Feuerbach have on others?MarxismWho was Karl Marx?Who was Friedrich Engels?In a nutshell, what did Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels write in their philosophy?AnarchismWhat is anarchism?Who was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon?What was new about Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's thought?What was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's lasting influence?Why was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon against women's rights?Was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon a friend of Karl Marx?Who was Mikhail Bakunin?Who was Peter Kropotkin?How did Peter Kropotkin come to form his life philosophy?What was Peter Kropokin's view of Darwinism in society?PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL THEORYWhat was philosophically significant about nineteenth-century psychology and social theory?Franz Brentano Who was Franz Brentano?What was Franz Brentano's main contribution to empirical psychology?Alexius Meinong Who was Alexius Meinong?What was Alexius Meinong's psychological theory?Was Alexius Meinong serious about nonexistent objects?What was Alexius Meinong's theory of value?Sigmund FreudHow are psychology and philosophy related?Who was Sigmund Freud?What are some details of Sigmund Freud's life that led him to his work?What was Sigmund Freud's interpretation of hysteria?What was Sigmund Freud's oedipal theory?Did Sigmund Freud analyze himself?Herbert SpencerWho was Herbert Spencer?What were Herbert Spencer's ideas about evolution?Sociology and Philosophy How is sociology related to philosophy?Who was Emil Durkheim?What were Emil Durkheim's main ideas?What did Emil Durkheim contribute to the study of suicide?Who was Georg Simmel?What were Georg Simmel's thoughts on fashion and money?Who was Marie-Luise Enckendorf?Who was Max Weber?How did Max Weber connect Protestantism to capitalism?CONTINENTAL PHILOSOPHYWhat is continental philosophy?EXISTENTIALISMWhat is existentialism?How are existentialism and phenomenology historically related?Soren Kierkegaard Who was Soren Kierkegaard?What were the emotional conditions in Soren Kierkegaard's life?What did Soren Kierkegaard deem his main vocation in life?What was Soren Kierkegaard's burning question?What were Soren Kierkegaard's "stages of life's way"?Was there only one kind of religious life for Soren Kierkegaard?Fyodor DostoyevskyWhy have existentialist philosophers claimed Dostoyevsky as one of their own?What aspects of Dostoevsky's life influenced his deep interest in human difficulty?Friedrich Nietzsche Who was Friedrich Nietzsche?How did Friedrich Nietzsche's life presage his philosophy?What are some of Friedrich Nietzsche's important works?What did Friedrich Nietzsche mean by "the birth of tragedy?"What was Friedrich Nietzsche's idea of a "gay science?"What did Zarathustra say in Friedrich Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra?What are the qualities/characteristics of Friedrich Nietzsche's Overman?What were Friedrich Nietzsche's views on religion?What did Friedrich Nietzsche mean by power?Jean-Paul Sartre Who was Jean-Paul Sartre?What was Jean-Paul Sartre's version of existentialism?What was Jean-Paul Sartre's basis for his idea of freedom?What kind of a Marxist was Jean-Paul Sartre?Who was Simone de Beauvoir?What did Simone de Beauvoir mean by an ethics of ambiguity?How was Simone de Beauvoir influential as a feminist?Other ExistentialistsWhat did the religious and humanist existentialists contribute?What were the ideas of the main religious existentialists?What were the ideas of some of the humanist existentialists?PHENOMENOLOGYEdmund Husserl Who was Edmund Husserl?What are some key facts about Edmund Husserl's life and career?Who was Edith Stein?What was Edmund Husserl's doctrine of intentionality?What was Edmund Husserl's phenomenological method?How did Edmund Husserl distinguish between two types of the self?Martin Heidegger Who was Martin Heidegger?What did Martin Heidegger mean by "ontology?"How does Martin Heidegger embarrass the Heideggerians?What are some important facts about Martin Heidegger's life?What is Dasein?Why do some people consider Martin Heidegger to be an existentialist?What is "the they"?What were Martin Heidegger's views on death?What was Martin Heidegger's theory of space?What was Martin Heidegger's theory of time?Why did Martin Heidegger claim that existentialism was not a type of humanism?What was Martin Heidegger's question concerning technology?Maurice Merleau-Ponty Who was Maurice Merleau-Ponty?What are some facts about Maurice Merleau-Ponty's life and career?What did Maurice Merleau-Ponty mean by a "phenomenology of perception"?CRITICAL THEORY AND STRUCTURALISMWhat is the difference between critical theory and structuralism?Critical Theorists What was the Frankfurt School?Who was Antonio Gramsci?Who were Max Horkheimer and Theodore Adorno?Who was Walter Benjamin?Who was Hannah Arendt?What was Hannah Arendt's political philosophy?Who was Herbert Marcuse?Who is Angela Davis?Who was Erich Fromm?StructuralistsWho was Ferdinand de Saussure?What is the linguistic turn?Who was Jacques Lacan?Who was Claude Lévi-Strauss?Who was Louis Althusser?Who was Michel Foucault?What was Michel Foucault's method for forming his cultural criticism?How did Michel Foucault's philosophy develop?Was Michel Foucault an existentialist?AMERICAN PHILOSOPHYWhat is American philosophy?Which early American philosophical strains were most influential?Early american philosophical strainsWhat was the Native American philosophical tradition?Who was Tenskwatawa?Who was Sagoewatha?What was the most striking Native American contribution to American philosophy?St. Louis HegeliansWho were the St. Louis Hegelians?How did the St. Louis Hegelians apply their philosophy?Did the Eastern philosophers interact much with the St. Louis Hegelians?What were the shared goals of the St. Louis Hegelians?What happened to the founders of the St. Louis Philosophical Society?How did Denton Jacques Snider interpret Friedrich Hegel?New England Transcendentalists Who were the New England Transcendentalists?Who was Amos Bronson Alcott?What was Henry David Thoreau's philosophical contribution?Who was Ralph Waldo Emerson?How did Ralph Waldo Emerson define transcendentalism?What kind of life did Ralph Waldo Emerson lead?What did Ralph Waldo Emerson mean by the "over-soul"?What were Ralph Waldo Emerson's requirements for a scholar?Was Ralph Waldo Emerson an abolitionist?Who was Margaret Fuller?What was The Dial?Who was Frederick Douglass?Social DarwinismWhat was evolutionary thought like in America during the nineteenth century?What was Social Darwinism?Who were the main Social Darwinists?Did nineteenth-century American philosophers directly take up evolution?Was nineteenth century evolutionary thought connected to ideas of progress?Did all nineteenth-century thinkers believe in progress?Pragmatism and process philosophyWhat is pragmatism?Charles Sanders Peirce Who was Charles Sanders Peirce?What are some key facts about Charles Peirce's career and life?What was Charles Peirce's philosophical system?What was Charles Peirce's pragmaticism?What was Charles Peirce's fourth system?William James Who was William James?What are some interesting facts about William James' life?What was Williams James' main contribution to psychology?How did William James come to develop pragmatism?What were William James' main pragmatic interests?What was William James' pragmatic epistemology?What was William James' pragmatic ethics?What were William James' theories concerning religion and free will?How did William James express his own will to believe?Josiah Royce Who was Josiah Royce?What were some of Josiah Royce's metaphysical ideas?What were Josiah Royce's ethical and religious views?John Dewey Who was John Dewey?What are some key facts about John Dewey's life and career?What were John Dewey's main philosophical ideas?What was John Dewey's metaphysics?What was John Dewey's theory of art?Jane Addams Who was Jane Addams?What are some highlights of Jane Addams' life that led her to found Hull House?How did Hull House fulfill pragmatist ideals of knowledge?George Herbert Mead Who was George Herbert Mead?Who was George Santayana?What was George Santayana's contribution to pragmaticism?What was George Santayana's ontology?Ralph Barton Perry Who was Ralph Barton Perry?What was Ralph Barton Perry's theory of value?What was Ralph Barton Perry's realism?C.I. Lewis Who was C.I. Lewis?What was the analytic/synthetic distinction and why did C.I. Lewis need it?What was C.I. Lewis' form of pragmatism?Who was Alain Locke?How did Alain Locke apply pragmatism to issues of race and culture?Process Philosophy What is process philosophy?Who was Alfred North Whitehead?What are the highlights of Alfred North Whitehead's career?What was Alfred North Whitehead's process philosophy?What did Alfred North Whitehead think the world was composed of in reality?Who was Charles Hartshorne?ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHYWhat is analytic philosophy?What is distinctive about the practice of analytic philosophy?Early twentieth century analytic philosophyWhat were the important themes in early twentieth century analytic philosophy?G.E. Moore Who was G.E. Moore?What was G.E. Moore's common sense philosophy?How Did G.E. Moore develop his common sense philosophy?How was G.E. Moore a realist?Truth-Functional Logic and Logical Atomism What is truth-functional logic?What was logical atomism?What was the influence of logical atomism?Bertrand Russell Ludwig Wittgenstein Other Logicians Who was Kurt Godel?Who was Alfred Tarski?Logical positivismWhat is logical positivism?The Vienna CircleWas the Vienna Circle an actual organization?What is phenomenalism?What is verificationism?Who was Moritz Schlick?Who was Rudolf Carnap?Who was Otto Neurath?What was Otto Neurath's main philosophical contribution?Who was A.J. Ayer?What are some other interesting facts about A.J. Ayer's life and career?What was A.J. Ayer's version of logical positivism?How was A.J. Ayer a phenomenalist?Ordinary language philosophyWhat is ordinary language philosophy?What was Ludwig Wittgenstein's major insight concerning ordinary language and philosophy?What is the method behind ordinary language philosophy?What was Ludwig Wittgenstein's private language argument?Who was O.K. Bouwsma?Who was Norman Malcolm?What is the other minds problem in philosophy?Who was John Wisdom?Who was J.L. Austin?Who was H.P. Grice?Analytic ethicsWhat is analytic ethics?What is the difference between ethics and morals?What is the difference between a moral system and a moral theory?What is moral conventionalism?What is ethical (or moral) relativism?How do philosophers deal with ethical relativism?What was G.E. Moore's naturalistic fallacy?What was the emotivist theory of ethics?What is ethical subjectivism?How were virtue ethics rediscovered in analytic philosophy?What was Philippa Foot's contribution to virtue ethics?What is ethical naturalism?What was Alasdair Maclntyre's contribution to virtue ethics?Who was Ayn Rand?What was Ayn Rand's virtue of selfishness?What is ethical egoism?What was Ayn Rand's philosophy of objectivism?What is consequentialism?Who was R. Hare?Have some philosophers criticized consequentialism?How have consequentialists responded to criticism?Analytic political philosophyWhat is distinctive about analytical political philosophy?Who was Isaiah Berlin?What were Isaiah Berlin's two concepts of liberty?How did Isaiah Berlin oppose Marxist historicism?Who was Karl Popper?What was Karl Popper's notion of the open society?Who was John Rawls?What was John Rawls' theory of justice?Who was Robert Nozick?What was Robert Nozick's response to John Rawls?What was Robert Nozick's own political theory?Who was Leo Strauss?What were Leo Strauss' main politically relevant ideas?Epistemology and metaphysics after logical positivismWhat was new in metaphysics and epistemology after logical positivism?Who was P.F. Strawson?Who was Wilfred Sellars?Who was Nelson Goodman?What is grue?W.V.O. Quine Who was W.V.O. Quine?What were W.V.O. Quine's most influential ideas?What was W.V.O. Quine's attack on the analytic-synthetic distinction?What was W.V.O. Quine's view of existence?How did W.V.O. Quine naturalize epistemology?What was W.V.O. Quine's holistic view of knowledge?Hilary Putman Who was Hilary Putnam?How did Hilary Putnam agree with W.V.O. Quine on the analytic-synthetic distinction?What was Hilary Putnam's neo-pragmatism?Philosophy of scienceWhat happened in analytic philosophy of science over the course of the twentieth century?Who was Hans Reichenbach?What was Reichenbach's theory of logical empiricism?How did ideas about life change when it came to the philosophy of science?Has science removed all of the mystery of life?Who was Ernest Nagel?What was Karl Popper's contribution to philosophy of science?What was Karl Popper's theory of falsification?How did falsification work according to Karl Popper?Who was Thomas Kuhn?What was Thomas Kuhn's paradigm theory?What is a scientific revolution according to Thomas Kuhn?Who was Imre Lakatos?What needed to be reconciled between Carl Popper and Thomas Kuhn?How did Imre Lakatos' research program reconcile Popper and Kuhn's work?Who was Paul Feyerabend?What was Paul Feyerabend's view of science?Philosophy of languageWhat is the connection between philosophy of mind and philosophy of language in analytic philosophy?What is behaviorism?Noam ChomskyWho is Noam Chomsky?What was Noam Chomsky's argument against behaviorism?What is Noam Chomsky's own theory of language?Why has Noam Chomsky's theory of language been so influential?Why is materialism important regarding the analytic philosophy of mind?Who was Gilbert Ryle and what was his thesis?Jerry FodorWho is Jerry Fodor?What is Jerry Fodor's modular theory of mind?What are the modules of the mind, according to Jerry Fodor?What is Fodor's language of thought hypothesis?What was Wilfred Sellars' idea of functionalism?What are problems with functionalism as a theory of mind?What is the causal theory of meaning?How did Thomas Nagel object to functionalism?What is eliminative materialism?How do the Churchlands account for perceptions of meaning?Who was Alan Mathison Turing?How did John Searle disagree with Alan Mathison Turing?NEW PHILOSOPHYHow can there be "new" philosophy?Which of these new philosophies are fads and which will last?What are the major themes in new philosophy?Postmodern philosophy What world facts inform postmodernism?What are the distinctive methods of postmodern philosophy?Jacques Derrida and Deconstructionism Who was Jacques Derrida?What is deconstructionism?How did Derrida explain deconstructionism in his Of Grammatology?Richard Rorty Who was Richard Rorty?What was Richard Rorty's view of truth?What was Richard Rorty's concept of philosophy?Jürgen Habermas Who is Jürgen Habermas?What are Jürgen Habermas' main ideas?Is Jürgen Habermas' work wholly theoretical?More French Postmodern Philosophers Who was Jean Baudrillard?Who was Jean-François Lyotard?What was Jean-François Lyotard's view of postmodernism?Who were Gilles Deleuze and Pierre-Félix Guattari?What was Gilles Deleuze like as a person?How did Alan Sokal attack postmodernism?Other american philosophies What are the other American philosophies?What makes the concerns of these historically disadvantaged groups part of philosophy?African American Philosophy What is African American philosophy?What were the main themes and claims in classic African American literature?What are the philosophical issues about racial identity?What have been the major themes and issues in African American philosophy?What is the philosophical issue regarding biological race?Native American Philosophy What is Native American philosophy?What are some of the current issues in Native American philosophy?Latin American Philosophy What is Latin American philosophy?What are the issues addressed by Latino-Latina/Hispanic-American philosophy?What have been the major trends in Latin American philosophy?Other continental traditionsWhat other continental traditions are new to Western philosophy?Afro-centrism and African Philosophy What are Afro-centrism and the African Diaspora?Is there or has there been an African philosophy?Buddhism and ConfucianismHow have Japanese, Chinese, and Indian philosophy recently entered Anglo-American philosophy?What is Buddhism?What is the school of thought of Buddhism?What have Western philosophers recognized in Buddhism?What is Confucianism?What is the Tao ?What was Confucius' influence?How is Confucianism relevant to contemporary Western philosophy?Feminist philosophyWhat is feminism and feminist philosophy?What are the three waves of feminism according to feminist philosophers?What were the goals of activist second wave feminists?What is philosophical about feminist philosophy?What have been the main themes in philosophical feminism?What is feminist reclamation?Who is Ruth Barcan Marcus?How did feminist epistemology develop?What is feminist philosophy of science?What has been important in second wave feminist political philosophy?What is Catherine MacKinnon's contribution to second wave feminist political philosophy?What is Catherine MacKinnon's argument against pornography?How have second wave feminists addressed gender?What is French feminism?Who is Julia Kristeva?What is Julia Kristeva's idea of the abject and the nature of women?Who is Luce Irigaray?For what is Luce Iragary most famous?Was Luce Irigaray's Speculum of the Other Woman socially relevant?Who is Hélène Cixous?Why are LBGT studies and queer theory part of philosophy now?Why has there been a third wave in feminism?How did race become important in feminist philosophy?What is the problem caused by intersectionality?Can the problem of intersectionality be solved?Why is the unity or commonality of women important?Environmental philosophy What is environmentalism?What, besides ethics, is philosophical about environmentalism?What general philosophical problems does environmentalism pose?How did environmental philosophy get started?What is the distinction between deep and shallow ecology?What has been Arne Naess' philosophical influence?What question does deep ecology pose for philosophers?What are some of Peter Singer's views?Who has claimed that animals have rights?What do critics of the deep ecological and animal value views claim?What religious issues are involved in environmental thought, pro and con?How is environmental ethics a secular matter?How is environmentalism related to feminism?How is environmentalism related to racial and international studies?Other trends in new philosophyWhat is the philosophy of biology?What are some of the main themes in philosophy of biology?Who is Daniel C. Dennett?What is Daniel C. Dennett's philosophy of biology?What is a meme?What is experimental philosophy?What are some results of experimental philosophy?What are the pitfalls and promises of experimental philosophy?What is philosophy of technology?What are the main themes and influences in philosophy of technology?What is philosophy of film?What is mysterianism?