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A short course of lectures
«The handy philosophy answer book»

What is the "problem of the criterion" as put forth by Montaigne?What does philosophy have to do with ordinary life?What were the emotional conditions in Soren Kierkegaard's life?What was George Berkeley's new theory of vision?What were Aquinas' views on science?Did Thomas Reid have his own ideas, in addition to saying why the empiricists were wrong?What is a scientific revolution according to Thomas Kuhn?GERMAN IDEALISMWhat are some of Peter Singer's views?Who was Sagoewatha?What was Karl Popper's theory of falsification?What was Francis Bacon's New Atlantis about?What was original about Locke's thoughts concerning education?Who was Ernest Nagel?Who was Bernard Bosanquet?Jerry FodorWhat were Rousseau's most influential ideas?What is Catherine MacKinnon's contribution to second wave feminist political philosophy?What was the Invisible College?Why was Montaigne important?What is ethical subjectivism?INTUITIONISM What was Betham's main proposal for prison reform?What historical developments helped to start Renaissance humanism?What is Julia Kristeva's idea of the abject and the nature of women?How was Newton's system received?NEW PHILOSOPHYWhat are John Stuart Mill's progressive ideas in The Subjection of Women?What is early modern philosophy?Other Logicians Who were the main early modern philosophers?Who were the philosophical rationalists?What are some examples of the perplexities Maimonides set out in his Guide of the Perplexed?What is Aristophanes' comedy The Clouds and how does it relate to Socrates?What is hedonic calculus?How did Ralph Waldo Emerson define transcendentalism?Who was Marie-Luise Enckendorf?PLATOWhat were Thomas Aquinas' main original ideas?In what ways did William Whewell disagree with Immanuel Kant?Why was the single status of early modern men of science and philosophy important?What were W.V.O. Quine's most influential ideas?Who was Antonio Gramsci?What is Fodor's language of thought hypothesis?Was Michel Foucault an existentialist?What is philosophy of technology?What is Sufism?What was G.E. Moore's naturalistic fallacy?What are the Pyrrhonic tropes?What was Anaxagoras' idea about the Mind?What was Auguste Comte's positivism?Who was Benedict de Spinoza?Has there been much progress in philosophy?What was The One?Why are LBGT studies and queer theory part of philosophy now?What did Thrasymachus think about the concept of justice?Soren Kierkegaard Who was Herbert Marcuse?What was the Native American philosophical tradition?What are the modules of the mind, according to Jerry Fodor?Did Plato and Aristotle influence early Christian and medieval philosophy?What was Immanuel Kant's Copernican Revolution?What was the debate between the Phyrrhonian and academic skeptics?What was Spinoza's legacy?JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAUWhy were "ideas" important to Berkeley?Have some philosophers criticized consequentialism?What is Epicureanism?What were Soren Kierkegaard's "stages of life's way"?What was the relevance of Plato's Laws to Plotinus and Gallienus?How are existentialism and phenomenology historically related?How is environmentalism related to feminism?What are some highlights of Friedrich Hegel's career?Who were the "Right" and "Left" Hegelians?Who was F.H. Bradley?Who is Angela Davis?What did Gorgias say about thought versus existence?Why was Averroés considered important by other philosophers?How is environmental ethics a secular matter?How did Spinoza's system solve Cartesianism?What is a meme?What happened in analytic philosophy of science over the course of the twentieth century?What did Anne Conway's physical pain have to do with her philosophy and religion?Who was H.P. Grice?What was William Whewell's theory of induction?Who was Aspasia of Miletus?What was Spinoza's philosophical system?What was Ralph Barton Perry's theory of value?What did St. Anselm of Canterbury begin?What is ethical egoism?What was al-Kindi's main contribution to philosophy?What was William Whewell's fundamental antithesis of knowledge?What, besides ethics, is philosophical about environmentalism?What were Averroes most noteworthy ideas?Who was Amos Bronson Alcott?What were Wollstonecraft's main political ideas?Can the problem of intersectionality be solved?Why was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon against women's rights?What topics are addressed in Plato's middle works?What was Gilles Deleuze like as a person?Did early Neoplatonism include women philosophers?What is philosophy of film?How did Hull House fulfill pragmatist ideals of knowledge?What was Edmund Husserl's doctrine of intentionality?What is sense knowledge?AMERICAN PHILOSOPHYWhat is environmentalism?What were Friedrich Hegel's main ideas?What was Peter Kropokin's view of Darwinism in society?What was Alexius Meinong's psychological theory?What is metaphysical idealism?Was Copernicus' new theory purely scientific?How did ideas about life change when it came to the philosophy of science?Native American Philosophy What was William Whewell's intuitionist moral philosophy?Who was Mary Wollstonecraft?What are primary qualities and secondary qualities?What were Ralph Waldo Emerson's requirements for a scholar?Who was Arthur Schopenhauer?Bernard Bosanquet What is the linguistic turn?Herbert SpencerWhat was the influence of logical atomism?What are some details of the Marquis de Sade's life?What did Plato mean by the divided line?What kind of life did Ralph Waldo Emerson lead?How is Confucianism relevant to contemporary Western philosophy?What is the origin of materialism, Marxism, and anarchism in the modern era?What did Paracelsus contribute to alchemy?What was C.I. Lewis' form of pragmatism?Who is Jerry Fodor?What influence did Ludwig Feuerbach have on others?What did the dialogue between the Pre-Socratics reveal about their philosophy?Who was Jean Baudrillard?What was Friedrich Schelling's major thesis?How did Hume proceed philosophically to create his science of the mind?Who is Noam Chomsky?What are some other notable works by Montaigne?Who was Maurice Merleau-Ponty?What were the main philosophical aspects of the scientific revolution?Who was Pierre-Simon Laplace?Who was Henry Sidgwick?What were Martin Heidegger's views on death?What were the ideas of some of the humanist existentialists?Why were the Sophists important philosophically?Who was Josiah Royce?What is the other minds problem in philosophy?What did Soren Kierkegaard deem his main vocation in life?What were Arthur Schopenhauer's main ideas?Fyodor DostoyevskyWhat was Friedrich Hegel's system?What was Hobbes' belief about free will?What are Jürgen Habermas' main ideas?What was new about Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's thought?Who was Max Weber?Other continental traditionsWhat are some important facts about Martin Heidegger's life?How did Henri Bergson relate real time to free will?What is Jerry Fodor's modular theory of mind?What is distinctive about analytical political philosophy?What was Reichenbach's theory of logical empiricism?Who were René Descartes' royal female correspondents?How did the St. Louis Hegelians apply their philosophy?What was Confucius' influence?Buddhism and ConfucianismWas Ralph Waldo Emerson an abolitionist?What are the other American philosophies?Who was Martin Heidegger?What is ethical naturalism?How did Pyrrhonic skepticism affect early modern natural philosophy?How did political events after the decline of Greece change philosophy?What was Thales' contribution as the first philosopher in Western history?Jürgen Habermas What was Hobbes' idea of the social contract?What is Daniel C. Dennett's philosophy of biology?What was Bacon's influence?Who was Gotthold Lessing?EARLY MODERN PHILOSOPHYOrdinary language philosophyWhat are some details of Sigmund Freud's life that led him to his work?What is the distinction between deep and shallow ecology?What was new in metaphysics and epistemology after logical positivism?What other continental traditions are new to Western philosophy?How have consequentialists responded to criticism?Who was the Marquis de Sade?How did Sir Thomas More become a martyr?What was Bentham's Principle of Utility?Who were some female Pythagoreans?What is process philosophy?What was Locke's solution to the Cartesian mind-body problem?Who was Princess Elizabeth?Has anyone succeeded in refuting Anselm's ontological argument?George Herbert Mead Why has there been a third wave in feminism?Who was Ayn Rand?Who were some important women philosophers from antiquity?What was An Essay in Defense of the Female Sex?Who was James Martineau?How were John Stuart Mill's views on women influential?What were Voltaire's religious views?What is behaviorism?Who were the St. Louis Hegelians?Who was Jean-Paul Sartre?More French Postmodern Philosophers New England Transcendentalists Who was Ralph Barton Perry?What is Confucianism?St. Louis HegeliansWho was Sigmund Freud?What were John Dewey's main philosophical ideas?What was Henry David Thoreau's philosophical contribution?Who was Hannah Arendt?What was St. Augustine's role at the beginning of medieval philosophy?What did Friedrich Hegel think was the highest form of spirit?Friedrich Hegel What was interesting about Voltaire's life?What did Aristotle think about government and politics?Feminist philosophyHow did the Pyrrhonic skeptics alleviate dogmatism?What have Western philosophers recognized in Buddhism?Did Malebranche have a more extensive philosophy to support his theory of causation?What was Charles Peirce's pragmaticism?What was Ludwig Wittgenstein's major insight concerning ordinary language and philosophy?What is materialism?Who was René Descartes?What's the difference between the practice of philosophy and the subject of philosophy?What was W.V.O. Quine's view of existence?Does philosophy only deal with the big questions about life and the universe?G.E. Moore Why are Immanuel Kant's epistemology and metaphysics transcendental?Who was Robert Nozick?What is German idealism?What was Martin Heidegger's theory of space?What did Zarathustra say in Friedrich Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra?Was Jonathan Edwards merciful toward sinners?How was George Berkeley's occasionalism distinctive?How were alchemists regarded by their peers?African American Philosophy How did Ptolemy's view of the solar system become the accepted theory?John Dewey How were Friedrich Schilling's views of culture aesthetic?What is Native American philosophy?NINETEENTH CENTURY EMPIRICISM How did Isaiah Berlin oppose Marxist historicism?How did Alain Locke apply pragmatism to issues of race and culture?What was Otto Neurath's main philosophical contribution?Why did philosophers become interested in mathematics, geometry, and logic, during the nineteenth century?What was Jean-Paul Sartre's basis for his idea of freedom?Which early American philosophical strains were most influential?What were the common themes of the Enlightenment?What was Social Darwinism?What was Robert Nozick's response to John Rawls?When did women philosophers first start to become recognized as part of philosophy?What was John Dewey's theory of art?Who was Auguste Comte?What did Prodicus tell his audiences?What was Richard Rorty's view of truth?How did W.V.O. Quine naturalize epistemology?What was Rousseau's life like?What was John Rawls' theory of justice?Who was Alfred Tarski?What are some of the current issues in Native American philosophy?What kind of a materialist was Ludwig Feuerbach?Is Jürgen Habermas' work wholly theoretical?Why do some people consider Martin Heidegger to be an existentialist?Who were the early Neoplatonists?What did Pope Honorius III consider heretical about Johannes Scotus Eriugena's treatise?Did philosophy lead to the other sciences all at once?What was Marsilio Ficino's contribution to the spirit of the Renaissance?Who was Themistocles?What kinds of jobs do philosophers have?How do we know the One?What aspects of Dostoevsky's life influenced his deep interest in human difficulty?Which of these new philosophies are fads and which will last?What is the Socratic method?Jane Addams How did race become important in feminist philosophy?How did feminist epistemology develop?How did Nicolaus Copernicus change the world?What are Afro-centrism and the African Diaspora?Was Isaac Newton rewarded for his scientific discoveries?Thomas AquinasWho was William of Ockam?Other ExistentialistsWho was George Herbert Mead?What are some interesting facts about William James' life?What is anarchism?Process Philosophy What was the reaction to the Meditations?Who is Daniel C. Dennett?Did Hume believe that we have free will?What was Greek wisdom?John LockeWhat is Pierre-Simon Laplace's theory of probability?Franz Brentano How were Joseph-Marie de Maistre's ideas similar to Edmund Burke's?How did Derrida explain deconstructionism in his Of Grammatology?Bertrand Russell What are some of the main themes in philosophy of biology?What was Aristotle's main contribution to Western philosophy?What were the main ideas of the Pre-Socratics?What was Berkeley's answer to whether a tree falling in the forest makes a sound?What was Plato's view of love?What was Peter Lombard's contribution to medieval philosophy?WILLIAM WHEWELLWhat was G.E. Moore's common sense philosophy?THE BASICSWhat is feminist reclamation?What are the philosophical issues about racial identity?ARISTOTLE Why has Noam Chomsky's theory of language been so influential?THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION What is Catherine MacKinnon's argument against pornography?Who was Ferdinand de Saussure?What were the main themes and claims in classic African American literature?What is the connection between religion and philosophy?Was anything absolutely wrong in Aristotle's view?What was the most striking Native American contribution to American philosophy?What did George Berkeley mean when he said, "To be is to be perceived"?Where does the soul fit into Plotinus' system of Platonic entities?How did Thomas Nagel object to functionalism?What were Plato's main ideas as presented and developed in his early dialogues?Who was Friedrich Engels?StructuralistsWho was Thomas Kuhn?What were Grotius' influential ideas about natural law?How did Alan Sokal attack postmodernism?How was John Duns Scotus' work different from Thomas Aquinas'?Noam ChomskyWho was Queen Christina and why was she important in Descartes' life?When did philosophy begin?What was the intellectual merit of de Sade's endeavors?For what is Heraclitus still famous?What is moral conventionalism?MaimonidesMaurice Merleau-Ponty Who was Jules Henri Poincare?Who was Charles Hartshorne?How did Neoplatonism become popular?Who was Louis Althusser?Was Aquinas able to solve the conflict between faith and reason?What were the important themes in early twentieth century analytic philosophy?What world facts inform postmodernism?Who was Herbert Spencer?What did Francis Bacon contribute to the scientific revolution?What was Alasdair Maclntyre's contribution to virtue ethics?How did Descartes solve his evil demon hypothesis?EXISTENTIALISMPSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL THEORYWhat was Robert Nozick's own political theory?Islam's InfluenceWhat was Alfred North Whitehead's process philosophy?In what way was St. Teresa of Avila a Renaissance figure?Why is gender an important topic in studies of early modern philosophy?CONTINENTAL PHILOSOPHYWhat are the main themes and influences in philosophy of technology?How did Hobbes explain sensation, memory, imagination, thought, and emotion?Who was Alain Locke?SKEPTICISM AND NATURAL PHILOSOPHY NINETEENTH CENTURY PHILOSOPHYIs Hegel's system purely abstract?Was Luce Irigaray's Speculum of the Other Woman socially relevant?Did Socrates really exist?THE CAMBRIDGE PLATONISTS What happened that affected empiricism in the nineteenth century?Who was Isaac Newton?What was Leibniz's monadology?Who was J.L. Austin?What did Maurice Merleau-Ponty mean by a "phenomenology of perception"?What was logical atomism?What are some important facts about Johann Gottlieb Fichte's career?What are some of the major philosophical arguments made in Meditations?Did Auguste Comte believe in altruism?Who was Voltaire?Postmodern philosophy Nicolas Malebranche Did the study of some of the sciences get their start in philosophy?How did falsification work according to Karl Popper?Who was Jeremy Bentham?What are the distinctive methods of postmodern philosophy?Other american philosophies Who was Edith Stein?Was Thomas More serious about his utopian vision?Johann Gottlieb Fichte Who was Friedrich Hegel?Jean-Paul Sartre What are the issues addressed by Latino-Latina/Hispanic-American philosophy?What was the analytic/synthetic distinction and why did C.I. Lewis need it?Who was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon?How have second wave feminists addressed gender?What was Vico's new view of history as knowledge?Early twentieth century analytic philosophyWas there only one kind of religious life for Soren Kierkegaard?What were some of John Stuart Mill's achievements?What are some key facts about Edmund Husserl's life and career?What advances were made during the nineteenth century concerning the philosophy of mathematics and logic?What is continental philosophy?What is African American philosophy?What was John Dewey's metaphysics?What has been important in second wave feminist political philosophy?What was Ludwig Wittgenstein's private language argument?What is philosophical about feminist philosophy?How were virtue ethics rediscovered in analytic philosophy?How did Anaximenes revise the theories of Anaximander?Who was Thomas Aquinas and what made him known as the greatest medieval philosopher?How is philosophy related to other fields?Who were the scholastics?What was George Santayana's contribution to pragmaticism?Who was Avicenna?ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHYWhat did Aquinas contribute to metaphysics in the non-religious sense?What was the reaction of Pre-Socratic philosophers to Parmenides' monism?What were Maimonides' main intellectual contributions?Pragmatism and process philosophyWhat were some of Leibniz's original contributions to philosophy?What is the method behind ordinary language philosophy?What did Parmenides and his Eleatic school believe?How did Hilary Putnam agree with W.V.O. Quine on the analytic-synthetic distinction?What was Martin Heidegger's question concerning technology?Environmental philosophy What were the shared goals of the St. Louis Hegelians?How was A.J. Ayer a phenomenalist?How were Locke's ideas about substance related to his theory of knowledge?How did William Harvey discover the closed circulatory system?ANCIENT PHILOSOPHYWhat is French feminism?What are the major works of Thomas Aquinas?How was Hume a man of contradictions?What did Friedrich Nietzsche mean by "the birth of tragedy?"Who was Leo Strauss?What was W.V.O. Quine's holistic view of knowledge?Would marriage have changed the emotional lives of seventeenth century philosophers?What have been the major trends in Latin American philosophy?Who was Richard Rorty?Who was Moritz Schlick?What was Charles Peirce's fourth system?What did Descartes mean by "clear and distinct ideas"?What are the roots of St. Anselm's ontological argument?How do philosophers deal with ethical relativism?How is Boethius' Consolation of Philosophy both stoic and Neoplatonic?Who was John Rawls?What were Leo Strauss' main politically relevant ideas?How is sociology related to philosophy?Who was Jacques Derrida?Sigmund FreudWhat was Empedocles' idea about the four elementsWhat is Marxism?Who was St. Teresa and what were her main ideas?What were some of Josiah Royce's metaphysical ideas?What was the Athenian school of Neoplatonism?Was Immanuel Kant an important figure of the Enlightenment?What were Voltaire's main contributions to philosophy?Who was David Hume?What was David Hume's great ambition in philosophy?How was Plotinus' system of thought expressed in the Enneads?Did Plato change his philosophy as he grew older?How did Locke use natural law to construct a theory of government?What are problems with functionalism as a theory of mind?What did Simone de Beauvoir mean by an ethics of ambiguity?What was some of the Catholic response to Martin Luther's dogmatism?Truth-Functional Logic and Logical Atomism Why were Locke's views on religion influential?How did Anaximander seek to revise Thales' philosophy?Who was William Whewell?Was Diotima of Mantinea a real or fictional female philosopher?Who was Edmund Husserl?What ideals for scientists did the early Royal Society promote?Who is Jürgen Habermas?What was Hobbes' theory of government in Leviathan?What were Emil Durkheim's main ideas?Who was Jean-François Lyotard?What was William James' pragmatic ethics?What were William James' theories concerning religion and free will?What were Bernard Bosanquet's main ideas concerning social philosophy?Who are some Dark Ages philosophers who came after St. Augustine?What was Sigmund Freud's oedipal theory?What is philosophy?How did Edmund Husserl distinguish between two types of the self?What is deconstructionism?Did Gottlob Frege succeed in reducing mathematics to logic?Who were the early seventeenth century "free thinkers" after Montaigne?What is the philosophy of biology?Who were the Cambridge Neoplatonists?What happened to Locke during his life and what were some of his important publications?SOCRATESWhat did Friedrich Nietzsche mean by power?What did Wollstonecraft claim on behalf of women?Did Sigmund Freud analyze himself?What is feminism and feminist philosophy?What are some of Friedrich Nietzsche's important works?Did the Eastern philosophers interact much with the St. Louis Hegelians?Epistemology and metaphysics after logical positivismWho was Tenskwatawa?What was Hobbes' solution to Descartes' mind-body problem?What is Buddhism?What is logical positivism?What was Wilfred Sellars' idea of functionalism?MarxismWhat was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's lasting influence?What were Wollstonecraft's theoretical innovations?When and how did the scientific revolution begin?Did women object to this negative view of them in the seventeenth century?Who was Jacques Lacan?What was Ayn Rand's virtue of selfishness?What were Josiah Royce's ethical and religious views?What was Michel Foucault's method for forming his cultural criticism?COUNTER-ENLIGHTENMENT FIGURESWho was John Dewey?What is experimental philosophy?FRANCIS BACON AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONWhat is phenomenalism?THOMAS REID AND JEREMY BENTHAM Friedrich Schelling What is mysterianism?What were Georg Simmel's thoughts on fashion and money?What was individually noteworthy about Diderot, d'Alembert, Holbach, and Montesquieu?Why was Bernardo Telesio called "the first of the moderns" by Francis Bacon?AnarchismHow did environmental philosophy get started?Who was Rousseau?Who was Jane Addams?What was disturbing about David Hume's analysis of causation?Sociology and Philosophy What was Jean-François Lyotard's view of postmodernism?Who was Emil Durkheim?What were Plato's dialogues?Who were Max Horkheimer and Theodore Adorno?What did John Stuart Mill think about Jeremy Bentham's "pleasure principle"?How can there be "new" philosophy?What were Bentham's life and career like?What did Augustine confess in Confessions?What are the pitfalls and promises of experimental philosophy?How did Johannes Kepler's career develop?How do the Churchlands account for perceptions of meaning?Richard Rorty How did Pyrrhonic skepticism get its name?Has science removed all of the mystery of life?What was Rosicrucianism?How did Johannes Kepler and Tycho Brahe help complete the Copernican Revolution?Is philosophy only found in the West?Francisco SuArezWhat did Aquinas think about the soul?How did non-Euclidian geometry affect other fields?Who was R. Hare?What did the religious and humanist existentialists contribute?What was Spinoza's philosophical goal?What is moral theory?What was Cambridge Platonism?What did Proclus contribute to Neoplatonism?What are some key facts about John Dewey's life and career?IMMANUEL KANT What is pragmatism?Was Alexius Meinong serious about nonexistent objects?Who was Henri Bergson?How did Peter Lombard answer his question of whether God was the cause of evil and sin?What was new about the thinking of the Pre-Socratics?How did lamblichus practice Neoplatonism?What did George Berkeley think of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities?Were all eighteenth-century thinkers in agreement with Enlightenment themes?Who was Ralph Waldo Emerson?The Vienna CircleWhat was Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative?Who was Walter Benjamin?How did Max Weber connect Protestantism to capitalism?What is Peter Abelard known for in philosophy?What was most important about Aristotle's work?Where does the human mind fit into Hegel's idealism?What do critics of the deep ecological and animal value views claim?PHILOSOPHY OF MATHEMATICS AND LOGICWho was Nelson Goodman?Who was Alan Mathison Turing?Why did Pierre Gassendi promote mitigated skepticism?What is known about Leibniz's life?Who was Rudolf Carnap?Who were the Encyclopedists?Who were the important philosophers of middle stoicism?What is existentialism?Which of the other Enlightenment thinkers were most directly relevant to philosophy?How were nineteenth century German idealists different from Plato or George Berkeley?What were John Stuart Mill's views on marriage?Who was Gilbert Ryle and what was his thesis?What did Martin Heidegger mean by "ontology?"Did Aristotle think that morality had a purpose or "final cause"?What is the connection between philosophy of mind and philosophy of language in analytic philosophy?What was Immanuel Kant's notion of synthetic a priori knowledge?What is consequentialism?How did William James express his own will to believe?Other trends in new philosophyWhat are some facts about Maurice Merleau-Ponty's life and career?How did Arthur Schopenhauer think we could best become aware of noumenal will?Jacques Derrida and Deconstructionism Did Anselm face objections to his ontological argument?Who was G.E. Moore?What roles did others play in furthering Francis Bacon's ideas?Analytic political philosophyWhat are these various specializations and subfields of philosophy?Was military invasion of Europe part of the religious practice of Islam during the medieval period?What was William Hamilton's philosophy of the conditioned?Who were the stoics and what did they believe?Who was Nicolas Malebranche?THE ENLIGHTENMENT PERIODWhat is eliminative materialism?What did Ralph Waldo Emerson mean by the "over-soul"?What was the Frankfurt School?Why have existentialist philosophers claimed Dostoyevsky as one of their own?Who was P.F. Strawson?Why is Maimonides' Guide of the Perplexed still considered a great philosophical text?Gottfried Wilhelm LeibnizWhat was Friedrich Nietzsche's idea of a "gay science?"THE SOPHISTSTHE PHILOSOPHES What is known about Immanuel Kant's life?HELLENISTIC AND ROMAN PHILOSOPHYHow and why was Locke's idea of the social contract different from Hobbes'?What was anti-Aristotelianism?PHENOMENOLOGYWhat were Friedrich Nietzsche's views on religion?Social DarwinismWhat did philosophers after Parmenides assert about the nature of appearance?What is the problem caused by intersectionality?How did René Descartes' philosophical work begin?Who was Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach?Ludwig Wittgenstein René Descartes What is ethical (or moral) relativism?How did skepticism further arguments for faith and mysticism?For what is Luce Iragary most famous?Why was John Stuart Mill important?What have been the main themes in philosophical feminism?Hilary Putman What was Charles Peirce's philosophical system?MEDIEVAL PHILOSOPHY What happened to the founders of the St. Louis Philosophical Society?Who was Imre Lakatos?What are Aristotle's 10 categories of existing things?C.I. Lewis Who was Johannes Scotus Eriugena?Who was Hypatia of Alexandria?What was W.V.O. Quine's attack on the analytic-synthetic distinction?Who were the philosophes?What did Emil Durkheim contribute to the study of suicide?WOMEN PHILOSOPHERS IN ANCIENT GREECE AND ROMEWho were the main Social Darwinists?How did John Searle disagree with Alan Mathison Turing?MICHEL DE MONTAIGNE Who was John Wisdom?Other Important Medieval PhilosophersWho was Erich Fromm?Why did philosophy start in ancient Greece?What was Neoplatonism?How Did G.E. Moore develop his common sense philosophy?Why is philosophy important?Who was W.V.O. Quine?What happens after absolute knowledge is attained?What was A.J. Ayer's version of logical positivism?What religious issues are involved in environmental thought, pro and con?What were the important ideas of the Sophists?What is the story of Descartes' life?Who was Robert Boyle?What have been the major themes and issues in African American philosophy?Who was Friedrich Schelling?How did James Martineau make Immanuel Kant's metaphysics religious?What are some key events for which Socrates is often remembered?What is the Tao ?What were some noteworthy advances in medicine during the scientific revolution?What was Paul Feyerabend's view of science?Who was William Hamilton?Who was Norman Malcolm?How well were Ockam's ideas first received?Is there interest in the Marquis de Sade today?How did the Church react to Galileo's theories?What was skepticism?Did nineteenth-century American philosophers directly take up evolution?How did Nicolas Malebranche react to Descartes' mind-body problem?What did George Berkeley think of matter, extension, and other mainstays secured by René Descartes and refined by John Locke?Philosophy of languageWho was Karl Marx?What is Latin American philosophy?What are the four causes as defined by Aristotle?Is philosophy just the beliefs and theories of individual philosophers?Why was René Descartes' idea of substance a problem for the empiricists?How is Christian philosophy different from Christian theology?What were Descartes' main ideas in Passions of the Soul?What are the three waves of feminism according to feminist philosophers?How did Gottlob Frege attempt to reduce mathematics to logic?NEOPLATONISM THROUGH THE RENAISSANCEWhat other accomplishments are attributed to Thales?What are the main Pre-Socratic texts?Who was Hans Reichenbach?Who was Jonathan Edwards?What is "the they"?What was Scottish Common Sense Philosophy?Once the idols are eliminated what did this allow us to do, according to Bacon?What is the difference between a moral system and a moral theory?Was nineteenth century evolutionary thought connected to ideas of progress?What was Sigmund Freud's interpretation of hysteria?What is ordinary language philosophy?Who first came up with the concept of atoms?How did the Islamic religion begin?Why aren't there any women philosophers from ancient Greece and Rome who became well known?Who was Franz Brentano?What was Philippa Foot's contribution to virtue ethics?What was Immanuel Kant's theory of the self?Was John Stuart Mill a socialist or a capitalist?Why did Vico oppose Cartesianism?How did Leibniz define his principles?What did Hippias contribute to learning?Logical positivismWhat was John Stuart Mill's formulation of utilitarianism?What is Dasein?What did Edward Gibbon contribute?What happened in Athens after both Plato and Aristotle were gone?SEVENTEENTH CENTURY EMPIRICISM When discussing religious belief, which did Montaigne consider to be more important: reason or faith?What was Richard Rorty's concept of philosophy?What were Isaiah Berlin's two concepts of liberty?DAVID HUMEHow did Spinoza consider good and evil?What was Plato's metaphysical theory of forms?What is the difference between critical theory and structuralism?What was dogmatism?Who was Mikhail Bakunin?What was Robert Boyle's atomic theory?To whom is Berkeley's idealism perplexing?How did George Berkeley's theory of vision relate to the concept of matter and physical existence?Who were the key players in the theories and practice of them in the scientific revolution?What question does deep ecology pose for philosophers?What was unusual about Hume's theory of the emotions?Why was Aquinas called the "Angelic Doctor" by Catholics?Did Galileo contribute more than a defense of Copernicus to science and philosophy?Is Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative different from the Golden Rule?Who was Plotinus?Was Montaigne the only skeptical philosopher to reason in this Pyrrhonnic way?Who was Arete of Cyrene?What is grue?Who was Georg Simmel?Who was Peter Kropotkin?What was Karl Popper's notion of the open society?What was impressive about Averroés' life and work?What was Immanuel Kant's second formulation of the categorical imperative?Is there a sharp distinction between Enlightenment philosophers and other intellectuals?What is Kepler famous for?What are the qualities/characteristics of Friedrich Nietzsche's Overman?What did Arthur Schopenhauer mean by his acronym WELT?In a nutshell, what did Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels write in their philosophy?How was Simone de Beauvoir influential as a feminist?How did John Stuart Mill define the difference between higher and lower pleasures?What were Edmund Burke's political background and beliefs?Was Christianity the only religious influence on philosophy after the ancient period?What were the main ideas of the scientific revolution?How was Vico's thought opposed to the Enlightenment?What was Alexius Meinong's theory of value?What was so revolutionary about the scientific revolution?Why did Heraclitus disagree with Pythagoras about the essence of life?What makes the concerns of these historically disadvantaged groups part of philosophy?How did William James come to develop pragmatism?What are the Socratic paradoxes?What were the new logic and four types of idols made famous by Francis Bacon's Novum Organum?What was Williams James' main contribution to psychology?What was Plato's Academy?What exactly was Parmendides reasoning in his claims about the One?Who was Wilfred Sellars?What is Noam Chomsky's own theory of language?What was Mary Astell's contribution to early modern philosophy?SEVENTEENTH CENTURY RATIONALISMWhat was Enlightenment philosophy?How did William Whewell think consilience, coherence, and predictions should be applied to test theories?Who was Albertus Magnus?Who was Gottlob Frege?Who was Michel Foucault?What was Arthur Schopenhauer's moral system?Alexius Meinong What is truth-functional logic?Who was C.I. Lewis?What was Aristotle's theory of the virtues?What was medieval philosophy?Is there or has there been an African philosophy?Was the Vienna Circle an actual organization?Who is Ruth Barcan Marcus?Who was A.J. Ayer?What is analytic philosophy?Philosophy of scienceWho was Margaret Fuller?What was Boyle's method of transdiction?Who is Hélène Cixous?What was original in Jonathan Edwards' view of God?Who was Hilary Putnam?What is distinctive about the practice of analytic philosophy?What are some results of experimental philosophy?Which Counter-Enlightenment figures had lasting effects on philosophy?Who was William Godwin?What are some of John Stuart Mill's influential publications?What was Protagoras famous for?What are some of Aristotle's works and what are they about?What was Hannah Arendt's political philosophy?NEOPLATONISM Who was Simone de Beauvoir?Who is Luce Irigaray?What was Noam Chomsky's argument against behaviorism?What are some key facts about Charles Peirce's career and life?What were Hippocrates' accomplishments and influence?How did Peter Kropotkin come to form his life philosophy?What was Johann Gottlieb Fichte's political philosophy?Who was Thomas Hobbes?What is known about Corpernicus' life?What was Soren Kierkegaard's burning question?What general philosophical problems does environmentalism pose?What was René Descartes' problem with the Inquisition?What is epistemological rationalism?What is the big problem with Hume's reduction of the self to perceptions?Who influenced George Berkeley?MATERIALISM, MARXISM, AND ANARCHISTSWhat did William Whewell mean by the sensationalistic school?Benedict de Spinoza What were the main elements of Newton's scientific system and what did they have to do with God?What is verificationism?What was Karl Popper's contribution to philosophy of science?What was Berkeley's critique of Newtonian science?What was Hume's problem of induction?How is environmentalism related to racial and international studies?W.V.O. Quine Who was George Berkeley?Who was Soren Kierkegaard?What was George Santayana's ontology?Was Bacon's life as direct and clear as his ideas?How was Neoplatonism similar to Christianity?What are Venn diagrams?Who was William James?What was Thomas Hobbes life like?Critical Theorists How did other philosophers and scientists react to Pierre Gassendi's views?What are the highlights of Alfred North Whitehead's career?What are the two types of ideas according to George Berkeley?Josiah Royce Why is the unity or commonality of women important?Who was Alfred North Whitehead?What was the Enlightenment?What was philosophically significant about nineteenth-century psychology and social theory?What are some highlights of Jane Addams' life that led her to found Hull House?Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach Who was George Santayana?What is a syllogism?Did Malebranche lead an exciting life?Was F.H. Bradley also an idealist?What is known about Aristotle's life?Who is Julia Kristeva?From what did Vico believe the cycles of history originated?What was Gottlob Frege's main innovation in the philosophy of logic?Who was O.K. Bouwsma?GREEK PRE-SOCRATICSWho was Kurt Godel?What was nineteenth century intuitionism?Was Boethius guilty or innocent of plotting against Theodoric the Great?What are some highlights of Johann Gottlieb Fichte's career?What was alchemy?How did Mary Astell's life affect her written work?What were the ideas of the main religious existentialists?What was Thomas Kuhn's paradigm theory?What are the major themes in new philosophy?What did Thomas Reid believe about free will?What was or is natural law?Thomas Hobbes What were Herbert Spencer's ideas about evolution?What are some key facts about Edmund Burke's life?What was Immanuel Kant's moral system?What was John Stuart Mill's view of logic and scientific methodology?Who were the Pre-Socratics?What was Martin Heidegger's theory of time?How did Imre Lakatos' research program reconcile Popper and Kuhn's work?What has been Arne Naess' philosophical influence?MEDICINE AND PHILOSOPHYWhat was Francico Suârez's view of metaphysics?How is philosophy different from other intellectual pursuits?Who were Gilles Deleuze and Pierre-Félix Guattari?What is Socratic irony?Why was Adam Smith's work important?How was G.E. Moore a realist?How was Giambattista Vico a unique philosopher of his time?How are psychology and philosophy related?What were the general ideas about women that were held by people in the seventeenth century?What did Alfred North Whitehead think the world was composed of in reality?What was the purpose of Descartes' Meditations?Did other's share the mystical aspects of Nicolaus Copernicus' system?Martin Heidegger Who was Paul Feyerabend?How important was Joseph-Marie de Maistre?Early american philosophical strainsWas Newton an eccentric personality?Why was Thomas Reid important?Has Nicolaus Copernicus' theory withstood the test of time?Who was Claude Lévi-Strauss?Ralph Barton Perry Who was Otto Neurath?Latin American Philosophy Did Vico interact with other Enlightenment thinkers over his lifetime?What was Jean-Paul Sartre's version of existentialism?How did Michel Foucault's philosophy develop?What is fideism and what does it have to do with what Montaigne demonstrated about skepticism?How did the facts of Wollstonecraft's life obscure her work?What was the goal of the encyclopedists?Charles Sanders Peirce Who was Frederick Douglass?JOHANNES KEPLER'S INFLUENCEWhy did John Stuart Mill distrust majority rule?What was Bernard Bosanquet's idealist doctrine?What was Gottlob Frege's landmark insight about meaning?What was William James' pragmatic epistemology?What were the main facts about Whewell's life?How were Ludwig Feuerbach's ideas received?What were Leibniz's views on embryology?What is feminist philosophy of science?How did Augustine support the theology of the Church with philosophy?What reforms did Cesare Beccaria advocate?What is American philosophy?What was Hilary Putnam's neo-pragmatism?What were the main original ideas that were important to Johann Gottlieb Fichte's philosophy?What do we know for sure about Plato's life?AUGUSTE COMTEWhat were Auguste Comte's sociological ideas?Arthur Schopenhauer Why was John Locke important?Who was Alexius Meinong?Who was Henry More?What was philosophical about the thought of Desiderius Erasmus?GENDER AND EARLY MODERN WOMEN PHILOSOPHERSDid Boyle's materialism mean he was an atheist?Was the Ptolemaic theory merely a matter of religious faith?Who was Francisco Suârez?What was new in Hume's views on religion?How did Friedrich Nietzsche's life presage his philosophy?How did Montaigne convey his ideas?Who was Paracelsus?RENAISSANCE HUMANISMWhat was Edmund Husserl's phenomenological method?Why did Martin Heidegger claim that existentialism was not a type of humanism?How are dogs like cynics?What needed to be reconciled between Carl Popper and Thomas Kuhn?What were Burke's main ideas in political theory?What was distinctive about Elizabeth Elstob?What was Vico's cyclical idea of history?What is analytic ethics?What was meant by "reason" during the Enlightenment?What was Pico Della Mirandola known for?Who was Isaiah Berlin?How does Martin Heidegger embarrass the Heideggerians?What was Immanuel Kant's proof of God's existence?Who were the Sophists?What characterizes nineteenth century philosophy as a foundation for current philosophical thought?What was the importance of Jewish philosophy in medieval thought?Who was Karl Popper?What were the goals of activist second wave feminists?Who was al-Ghazali?Who were some of Robert Boyle's scientific influences?What is Roman stoicism?What is the causal theory of meaning?Did Plato change his philosophical theory of forms?What is the difference between ethics and morals?What was Bernard Bosanquet's aesthetic theory?Why was Pyrrho important?Who was Boethius?What were William Whewell's main ideas?What did Henry Sidgwick contribute to moral theory?What is anarchism?Who was Pyrrho of Elis?What was evolutionary thought like in America during the nineteenth century?How did Copernicus change the Ptolemaic system?How did Denton Jacques Snider interpret Friedrich Hegel?JOHN STUART MILLWhat was Franz Brentano's main contribution to empirical psychology?How have Japanese, Chinese, and Indian philosophy recently entered Anglo-American philosophy?What was the reaction to Burton's The Anatomy of Melancholy?What is the philosophical issue regarding biological race?CRITICAL THEORY AND STRUCTURALISMWhat were William James' main pragmatic interests?What was the emotivist theory of ethics?Who were the main defenders of sense knowledge at the beginning of modern science?What has medicine got to do with the history of philosophy?How and why did Jewish and Islamic philosophy become part of the scholastic tradition?What were some of Newton's career accomplishments?What have been the two main subjects of Western philosophy?Who was Friedrich Nietzsche?What is the "problem of universals"?Were Pyrrhonic skeptics anxious about the impossibility of knowledge?How was skepticism related to the scientific revolution?Who was Galileo?What are some details of David Hume's life and career?What is the school of thought of Buddhism?Who was Charles Sanders Peirce?What is ancient cynicism?Was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon a friend of Karl Marx?What was Arthur Schopenhauer's influence?Did Rousseau support a free society?What was Ralph Barton Perry's realism?Who was Anne Conway?GEORGE BERKELEYHow did medicine progress after Hippocrates?What kind of a Marxist was Jean-Paul Sartre?William James What are academic and Pyrrhonic skepticism?Friedrich Nietzsche Who was Leibniz?Who has claimed that animals have rights?Did Asclepigenia suffer the same fate as Hypatia?What was John Stuart Mill's final assessment of religious belief?What was the Sidgwick's interest in the paranormal?Who were the New England Transcendentalists?Afro-centrism and African Philosophy What were Alcmaeon's innovations in medicine?How was Johann Gottlieb Fichte's idealism connected to freedom?The Scholastics What are some other interesting facts about A.J. Ayer's life and career?How was Jonathan Swift opposed to Enlightenment values?Why is materialism important regarding the analytic philosophy of mind?What was Ayn Rand's philosophy of objectivism?What was mitigated or moderate skepticism as explained by Pierre Gassendi?What is non-Euclidian geometry?Was Descartes a Cartesian?MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT AND WILLIAM GODWINWho were the natural philosophers?What was The Dial?Analytic ethicsWho was Pierre Gassendi?Why was Pythagoras important?Who was Johann Gottlieb Fichte?Did all nineteenth-century thinkers believe in progress?Edmund Husserl How does Plato define a "just city" in his Republic?
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