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Home arrow Geography arrow Global Perspectives on Human Capital in Early Childhood Education: Reconceptualizing Theory, Policy, and Practice



1. The bicultural document is also understood as contributing to the government’s obligations to honor, and redress significant breaches of the Treaty of Waitangi (Aotearoa, New Zealand’s founding document, a partnership agreement between Maori, first peoples in Aotearoa, and the British Crown). There are two versions of the curriculum document. One is written in te reo Maori (Maori language) and one in English. They are not direct translations of one another. The Maori language version expresses concepts central to te ao Maori (the Maori world) and was developed for use in kohanga reo (total immersion Maori early childhood spaces). In the English language version, the core principles of the document are expressed in both te reo Maori and English and are intended to inform practice in all ECE centers.

  • 2. ECE kaupapa Maori assessment approaches have been informed by critical scholarly engagements with Te Whariki and Maori aspirations for tino rangatiratanga (self-determination) in, and through, education (e.g., Paki, 2007).
  • 3. Recently, the initial dispositions proposed as a basis for assessment have been elaborated by Carr, Smith, Duncan, Jones, Lee, and Marshall (2009). However, the core dispositions detailed here remain central to best practice (e.g., Carr & Lee, 2012; Mitchell & Carr, 2014) and have been widely disseminated in professional development programs and are promoted in current Ministry of Education ECE resources.
  • 4. See Buchanan (2011), for a fuller discussion of the sources that inform the analysis and discussion below.
  • 5. The use of the term “economistic” draws on Beista’s use of the term to refer, as he explains, “to the idea of the economy as an aim and value in itself, which is similar to the difference between ‘scientific’ and ‘scientistic’ ” (2013, p. 13).
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