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European Integration and Transformation in the Western Balkans: Europeanization or Business as Usual

I Europeanization travels to the Western Balkans Europeanization travels to the Western Balkans. Enlargement strategy, domestic obstacles and diverging reformsEuropeanization via enlargement and post-communist transformationTop-down EU conditionality versus contextualized domestic influencesUnpacking domestic contexts and challenging factors in the BalkansThe strength ofEUdomestic alliesThe weight of structureThe breaks of statenessAssessing the role of the EUThe methodological approachEU rules and degrees of domestic adoptionOutline of the book and findingsStructure of the volume and individual contributionsDomestic responses and explanatory factorsNotesThe Stabilization and Association Process. A framework for European Union enlargement?The SAP: building on the experience of Eastern enlargement?The dangers of comparisonImplementing the SAP: good, but could be betterProgress towards membership: ambiguous commitment?Progress towards membership: increasing differentiation?Shifts in the supply side of enlargementConclusionsNotesII Europeanization in consolidated statesThe trials and triumphs of Europeanization in Croatia. The unbearable weight of structure and state-building?Structure: the persistent influence of the initial conditions of transitionStructure, corruption and clientelismStructure and the limits of neoliberal economic policiesStateness: the complications of building a sovereign nation-stateA preoccupation with nationStateness: the orientation of foreign policy and regional cooperationStateness and cooperation with the ICTYStateness and Croatia’s European futureConclusionsNotesEU political conditionality towards Serbia. Membership prospects vs. domestic constraintsCosts and incentives: an explanatory frameworkSerbia 1993—2003: from non-recognition of the ICTY to the extradition of Milosevic—2000: non-cooperation due to lack of incentives and illiberal elites—3: thepro-EUgovernment and uneasy relationship with the ICTYDomestic constellations of power that facilitated complianceSerbia 2003-8: more declaratory than substantial cooperation with the ICTYEU leverage and reluctant cooperation amidst political turbulenceIncreased leverage increases compliance?-12: strengthening of EU alliesConclusionsNotesEU conditionality as a transforming power in Macedonia. Evidence from electoral managementTransposition and implementation of electoral standardsEU conditionality and electionsElectoral problems in Macedonia: domestic obstaclesLegal FrameworkElectoral administrationImplementation of and respecting the Electoral CodeThe clientelistic pattern of Macedonian politicsThe logic of clientelismEthnic divisions and clientelismElections, clientelism and conditionalityConclusionsNotesEU administrative conditionality and domestic obstacles. Slow, hesitant and partial reform in post-communist AlbaniaThe evolution of the EU’s administrative criterionWhat administrative capacities does the EU require?The reinforcement of the administrative criterionAdministrative reforms and the weight of the past in AlbaniaPoliticization of the state, 1992—7The foreign drive to re-build a scattered state, 1997—2000The application of EU leverageTargeting and monitoringEU assistanceUpgrading of institutional relationsHalf-hearted reforms and partial compliancePolitical resistance and the deficient working of new legal models, 2000—5The test of the 2005 turnoverConclusionNotesWhere does the European Union make a difference? Rule of law development in the Western Balkans and beyondA two-dimensional approach to the rule of law and the role of EU conditionality in recent judicial reformsDefining the dimensions of the rule of lawThe EU’s role in establishing rule of lawChange in judicial capacityWestern Balkans: partial and incoherent reformsSerbia: donor-driven, incoherent judicial reformAlbania: lack ofjudicial capacity persistsMembership countries: considerable EU-driven changeNeighbourhood countries: moderate progress after reorientationPersistence in the judicial impartiality dimensionWestern Balkans: limited changeSerbia: absence of transformative change despite commitmentAlbania: lack of results and overall progressMembership countries: power struggles and legal incoherenceNeighbourhood countries: persisting old patterns of behaviourAn inappropriate reform approach?ConclusionsIII Europeanization in contested states State-building without recognition. A critical retrospective of the European Union’s strategy in Kosovo (1999—2010)1Conceptualizing the role of EU in KosovoIt is complicated: the constellation(s) of foreign presence in Kosovo2The EU presence in Kosovo: a multi-layered actor in a complex environmentThe limits of the European Union’s role as a state-builder in KosovoEconomic recovery: money is not enoughInstitution-building: slow progress, looming problemsPolitical stability: at the expense of multi-ethnicity?Security guarantees: no peace without enlargement?ConclusionNotesBuilding environmental governance in potential candidate countries. Environmental impact assessment processes in Bosnia-HerzegovinaEnvironmental governance: a definitionThe environmental impact assessment process: EU norms and their reception in BiHThe Bosnian EIA processAnalysis of the REC dataActivitiesFundingQualitative dataWeak state capacity?ConclusionNotesSecessionism, irredentism and EU enlargement to the Western Balkans. Squaring the circle?Conceptualizing secessionism and irredentismThe secessionist challenge in the BalkansFactors favourable to EuropeanizationFactors impeding EuropeanizationSecessionism meets EuropeanizationThe way aheadNotesWhen Europeanization hits limited statehood. The Western Balkans as a test case for the transformative power of EuropeHitting its borders: the domestic impact of Europe on the Western BalkansStatehood in the Western Balkans: the missing linkThe EU as a state-builder?ConclusionsNoteBibliography
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