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What were Friedrich Hegel's main ideas?
Hegel's system is difficult to describe because all of its parts are inter-related, and so to describe one aspect of it is to evoke all of the others; it is not clear exactly where an interpreter might begin. Hegel's order of exposition in the progression of his work is not a good guide because the structure of his system has to be presupposed in order to make sense of the progression. In other words, Hegel had his whole system in mind as he wrote about different parts of it. This said, there are several important elements that can be identified as Hegel's premises:
• Man has a history, but nature does not.
• All men do not have the same categories of fact.
• Human thought develops.
• Philosophy should give a rational account of religion.
• Social stability is possible after the French revolution.
• Individual autonomy is possible in a unified society.
• The nature of things is a system and a system of knowledge must reflect that.
What was Friedrich Hegel's system?
Knowledge, according to Hegel, begins with logic, the subject of which is pure being, although logic is always "mediated" in history, so that we do not see or experience logic in its pure form, but have to infer it from relations among events. Past philosophy rep
Friedrich Hegel was a philosopher who could think about the entire world with an Aristotelian comprehensiveness (AP).
resents different forms of consciousness that have progressed toward absolute knowledge or philosophical science. The progression of consciousness occurs because different forms of consciousness are contradictory and their inner dialectic resolves the contradictions via the emergence of new forms. This dialectic is not a dialogue between consciousnesses, but the inner development of what consciousness is conscious of. Hegel is able to chronicle this development of consciousness toward absolute knowledge, because it is presumed to be attained through his philosophical work.
What happens after absolute knowledge is attained?
Friedrich Hegel's science is aimed at uniting Immanuel Kant's (1724-1804) system of transcendental categories to Aristotle's (384-322 b.c.e.) logic about the real world. Hegel divides his thought process into treatments of being, essence, and concept, which are each divided into three parts, and so on. The contradictions in each category of nature require resolution leading to the categories that succeed it.
According to Hegel, nature itself has developed in a logical way, leading to ever greater abstractions in the form of our knowledge of nature. Hegel did not make clear distinctions between things in themselves in an ordinary, realist sense, and our knowledge of those things. For Hegel, then, the progression toward more complexity in nature corresponds with a progression in human knowledge.
Is Hegel's system purely abstract?
Very abstract thinking is necessary to understand Hegel's system, but the system itself is presented by him as a literal account of reality. categories are at the outset literally embedded in physical nature, which expresses them. Space expresses a lower category of being, whereas living organisms embody and express the higher categories of concept, purpose, and life. Thus, the development of the system of thought is evident in the development of the real world, except that thought, or the Absolute, is the ultimately real actualizing and defining principle of everything that exists.
Where does the human mind fit into Hegel's idealism?
Human Geist, or mind, or spirit, is made up of the same categories that form reality, according to Friedrich Hegel. These categories, as ideas, develop in the individual life and in humanity as a whole over time. There are three stages of spirit, with the second higher than the first, and the third higher than the second. The first stage is subjective spirit, which is individual psychology. The second stage of Geist is objective spirit, or the traditions, rules, and institutions of society. The third stage of Geist is Absolute Spirit, evident in the arts, religion, and philosophy. As spirit understands itself, it becomes free and aware of itself, or self-conscious. Spirit preserves, destroys, and raises up what is not spirit.
Was Hegel a political radical or a romantic?
Friedrich Hegel was not a radical in his mature writings in which he praised the status quo. But in his youth, perhaps he was. At 18 he began studies at the Stift Theological Seminary in Tübingen, but he was bored by the course of study and sermons, preferring to read Aristotle, Spinoza, Voltaire, and Rousseau. Nevertheless, he was a good student, earning a Ph.D. by 20 and a theological certificate three years later. His peers called him "old man" when he accompanied them in hiking, beer drinking, and carousing. They were all excited by the French Revolution, and in 1792 Hegel was called the "most enthusiastic speaker of freedom and equality" in a student club that was devoted to the study of Plato, Kant, and F.H. Jacobi.
Hegel's roommates were the poet Christian Friedrich Hölderlin and the philosopher Friedrich Schelling (1775-1854). From Hölderlin he learned to love the ancient Greeks even more. They all protested against the political and ecclesiastical stasis of Tübingen. On July 14, 1792, Hegel, Hölderlin, and Schelling were said to have planted a liberty tree on a meadow near the Tübingen Seminary, although not all biographers think this in fact happened.
Hegel was hardly a Romantic philosopher, but there was some romantic drama in his life. As he was finishing The Phenomenology of Spirit (1807), Christina Burkhard informed him that she was pregnant with their child. Ludwig, his illegitimate son, was born in February 1807. He completed the manuscript on the same day Napoleon Bonaparte captured Jena: October 18, 1807. In 18ll, at the age of 41, he married Marie von Tucher, who was 20. Marie's aristocratic family was not enthusiastic about the match, though, and a government official friend had to intervene to negotiate it. During their courtship, Hegel wrote her a romantic poem (which most describe as hackneyed); he referred to his hope of marrying her as an ascension into "eternal bliss."
What did Friedrich Hegel think was the highest form of spirit?
The modern state of Hegel's own time is considered by him to be the epitome of Absolute spirit. This state is a unity that molds its members and also allows them individual freedom.
Who were the "Right" and "Left" Hegelians?
Active interest in Friedrich Hegel's ideas died out soon after his death in 1843, but his influence has nonetheless continued in much twentieth-century thought. His ideas were immediately interpreted by the "Right Hegelians," who believed that the Prussian state represented the final union of philosophy and Christianity, and the "Left Hegelians," including Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach (1804-1872) and Karl Marx (1818-1883), who interpreted a politically revolutionary future for the dialectic propounded by Hegel.
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