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Feeding, Sharing and Devouring: Ritual and Society in Highland Odisha, India

PrefaceThe Research RegionEthnography of the GadabaMy Fieldwork among the GadabaFood and SocietyThe Anthropological Study of FoodFood in IndiaFood, Social Structure, and StatusFood as CommunicationRitual and FoodFood among the GadabaFoodstuffs, Meals, and Cooking VocabularyFood and RitualSignificance of Theoretical Approaches to Food for the Interpretation of the DataSome Theoretical RemarksStructureRitualTribal SocietyOrganization and ThesesOne: The Social OrderThe Social Order: Categories, Groups, RelationshipsThe HouseConstruction and FurnishingThe House as a Social GroupBuilding a HouseStructure of the HouseThe Local Sub-LineLocal Lines, Status Categories, and DignitariesRitual and Secular Functions: SeniorityDistribution of the kuda GroupsThe VillageAppearance of the VillagesSignificance of the Village: Descent, Territoriality, and CommensalityBonso Descent CategoryThe Village ClanVillage Ritual SitesPlaces of the Dead and the AncestorsCrossroadsLocal Representations of the GodsFood of the GodsHundi or nisaniPat kanda, gumang*, or the Great HouseJakor and bag pujaKarandiBoiro or boirobiThe Gods’ Relationships to One AnotherDoron deli and hundi, House and VillageThe "Latecomers”The Gangre’s Local AffinesDomboDombo and Sisa as tsorubaiDombo ActivitiesBarikSeniorityGoudoKamarThe LandCategories of the LandscapeKing, Land, and roitAdministrative Structure of Land Taxation and DasaraLand Distribution in GudapadaLease: bandaThe Fruits of the Land and the Veneration of the EarthStatus, Specialization, and Gift Exchange: pholoi in Comparison to jajmani RelationshipsDumont’s ModelTypes of jajmani Relationships and PrestationsPatron/Client Relationships in ComparisonRelationships between VillagesAffinal RelationshipsIdeal Village ExogamyMarriage PracticeExchange of MilkAgnatic Relationships TsorubaiPanjabaiMoitr or dissel*The Web of RelationshipsConcepts of "Society”The Twelve Brothers (baro bai)The Twelve Brothers and the AffinesThe Creation of Society in MythsSeniority of the Desia SegmentsExternal RelationshipsConclusionSymmetry, Affinity, Generation, and Seniority“Genealogical” RelationshipsDescent, Territoriality, and tsoru CommensalityTwo: Rituals and FestivalsFed and Eaten: Transformations of the PersonPregnancy and RebirthBirthSequence of BirthRitual PurificationLiquor and RiceSacrifice for the DeadTying the Chicken Bone“Ending Pollution”Sacrificial Ritual at the “Umbilical Pit”Ritual PurificationName-GivingTsoru and bulani RiceTying the “Birth String”“Taking Down the Hair”The "Path Wedding”Sequence of a Path WeddingThe SeanceSacrificial Ritual and Play: biru and kelFeeding tsoruThe Process of MarriagePaths to MarriageMaking Suit for a BrideAbductionElopementPassage from the Old House to the New “Daughter” tsoruBringing the Bride Home: gor mandaibar or dien obten*Feeding with kordi RiceFirst Visit to the Bride-GiversFeeding with kordi RiceReturn of the Bridal CoupleBridewealth: The Exchange of MilkWedding Ritual Significance of the tsoruSequence of the Wedding (biba)PreparationsThe First DayThe tsoru of the Four BrothersTikaThe tsoru of the Mothers’ Brothers: mamu tsoruFeastThe Second DayThe Relationship to the Forest: Procession to the sindi GrassThe tsoru of the Twelve BrothersFarewellAfter the Wedding: mosi RiceWomen’s Status and Compensation PaymentsExcommunication or jatiOn the Living, the Dead, and DyingDeath and Dissolution of the PersonManifestations of the DeadTypes of Death, the Dead, and the RitualsIdeas about the AfterlifeThe Pattern of RebirthForms of MourningThe Mortuary Rituals IThe “Day of Death”The Second Phase of the Mortuary Rituals: The “Fishwater” RitualThe Third Phase of the Mortuary RitualsSacrifice, tsoru Cooking, and Other PreparationsFeeding at the Cremation SiteDiscussions with the Mother’s Brother, Feeding the Dead, and FeastDemanding the “Bone Vessels”Transactions in Cattle and MeatHead and HaunchesThe Last RiceExample of a Bad Death and Its ConsequencesThe tsoru of the Twelve BrothersThe Mortuary Rituals II: gotrIzikowitz’s DescriptionGotr in KamargudaChief Festival DayExternal Buffalo-BringersDistribution of moaliPfeffer’s DescriptionSequence of gotrThe First Day: Transfer of the dumaThe Second Day: Arrival of the External AgnatesThe Third Day: Arrival of the purani Buffaloes and Giving Away of the BuffaloesThe Fourth Day: Joking Rituals between AffinesGotr in PonosgudaAwakening the duma and Banishing the Evil SpiritsRau Sacrifice and Planting of the simli mundaFeeding the sig RicePreparations in GudapadaPonosguda: Feeding the BuffaloesFeeding the Buffaloes, Feast, and Arrival of the Buffalo-TakersGotr Day Rau SacrificeDistribution of the PacketsJur RiceDeparture from the VillageArrival of the purani and Giving Away of the BuffaloesBathing and Distribution of the moali GiftsThe Buffalo-Takers’ Invitation to the SponsorsInterpretations of gotrConclusionIndividual and SocietyTransformations of the PersonFrom Birth to the “Path Wedding”Transition to a Complete PersonDisintegration, Reembodiment, and ConsumptionTransformation, Reproduction, and AssimilationMarriage and gotrBrides and BuffaloesSelf and OtherThe Affines’ BuffaloThe Table of the Agnates: Rituals of the Annual CycleSeasons and FestivalsForms of Labor HelpThe Hot SeasonApril FestivalRitual Sowing of the Paddy RicePlanning the FestivalSacrifice at the Great HouseSequence of the RitualSacrificesButchering and CommensalityProcession to the VillageSacrifice on the PathSequence of the RitualSacrifices by Various kutumFeast for the boro dissariBringing Down the Seeds“Festival Day”Sacrifice for the Village GoddessSacrifice for the House Deity and the Seed GrainVisits and “Wandering Rice”Tsoru Commensality of the Four BrothersFestival of the Leftovers“Small Hunt”“Great Hunt”Veneration of the MountainHuntingLast DayActivities from May to JunePlanting the Rice PaddiesCashew HarvestThe Rainy SeasonAgricultural Activities in JuneJuly FestivalBolani jatraRitual of the Young PlantsAugust FestivalPig and Cattle Sacrifices (jakor and bag puja)Sequence of the Rituals“Festival Day”Songs and CompetitionsRitual for the Dry Fields“Millet Ritual”The Cold SeasonPreparations for HarvestOctober FestivalNovember FestivalSacrifice at the Great HouseRitual Rice MeasuringFetching Home the First Ear of Paddy RiceReaping and Stacking the MilletSacrifice for the Village GoddessSacrifice for boirobiCollective Sacrifice for the DeadPaddy Rice HarvestFetching Home the Ears of GrainBurying the PlowshareRitual Purification and Protection of the Threshing FloorThreshing and Winnowing the Rice“Day of Fetching Home the Rice”Sacrifice for the River GodsSacrifice at the Threshing FloorMeasuring the HarvestTsoru Commensality and Bringing Home the Rice as a BrideRapeseed Harvest and Threshing of the MilletSacrifice at the Threshing FloorJanuary FestivalSacrifice for the Village Goddess and on the RoadStaff DanceFeeding the CowsConclusionEconomy, Environment, and SocietySacrifice at the Great HouseApril FestivalSacrifices outside the VillageThe Village ClosesOpening through the HuntReturn to Village and FieldsStructure of the Festivals: chait, bandapan, and diali porboPeriodizations of GrowthStructure of the SacrificesOppositions in the Annual CycleRelationships between the Life Cycle and the Annual Cycle Plants and Harvest as Children and BridesDry FieldsRice PaddiesParadigmatic and Syntagmatic RelationshipsFeeding and Devouring"You Are the Goat, I Am the Tiger”: The Rituals of HealingThe Social Meaning of Illness: Precarious RelationshipsCauses of Illness and MisfortuneSpecialists, Diagnoses, and TreatmentsThe Healers’ MeansCursesDestructionExamples of the Rituals against nostoFirst Case: Nosto against House and InhabitantsSecond Case: nosto against MilletThird Case: Extraction of kudal and jontorEvil Eye and WitchesExploitation of duma and rauPossession and ExorcismPossession by duma First Case: Attack by a Deceased BrotherSecond Case: Possession on the Day of a CremationThird Case: Possession by the Deceased barikPossession by River GodsAttacks by soni rauConclusionComparison with the Rituals of the Life Cycle and the Annual CycleConclusionTransformation and Constitution of Social Relationships through Alimentary ProcessesSymbolic Classification in Alimentary ProcessesEpilogueBrief History of FieldworkParticipant Observation and IntegrationMy Research in Odisha First Steps and LiminalityThe Village Festival in 1999Integration in the First PhaseSecond Phase of My FieldworkArrival of the BrideMarriageMy New StatusMy AssistantThe Process of Integration in the Second PhaseThird Phase of My FieldworkThe Long GoodbyePlunging In?ConclusionBibliography

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