Seven Focusing as a Discourse Strategy of Information Presentation Andrei Levitsky
Kiev Taras Shevchenko National University, Ukraine
Meaningful language units while functioning in discourse reveal communicative aims of the speaker/writer. Thus they are basically used for representing the intentional side of discourse. If the speaker/writer wants to add a strong emotional impact to either a whole utterance or to one of its parts, the strategy of focusing may be applied. Focusing as a strategy of foregrounding specific information by means of giving it emotional colouring helps the speaker/writer to shape the pragmatic core of discourse. very often words and phrases which are otherwise used only occasionally are applied for this task. They basically appear due to functional re-orientation for satisfying the demands of brief and adequate transmitting of information in discourse.
Pragmatics deals with the process of communication within the general theory of human activity (Cook 1990, van Dijk 1995, Yule 1996). It considers the adequate language usage in discourse as a uniting principle (Brown and Yule 1983, Cook 1990, Ellis 1995, Thomas 1996). The purpose and intention of communication, language strategies and ways of discourse behaviour, attitude towards the message, speaker’s reference and pragmatic presuppositions become very important for the speaker/writer (Givon 1989, Schiffrin 1994). Pragmatics is concerned with the interpretation of the verbalized message and the shaping of an adequate communication response (Kasher 1991, Thomas 1996, Yule 1996).