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Functional re-orientation as a ground for the focusing strategy

Any reconsideration of the traditional categorical semantics, syntactic relations, pragmatic colouring of a language unit and its sign transposition proves functional re-orientation-a process closely associated with a person as an intellectual and word-perceiving being (because this phenomenon foregrounds new designation), which appears only in discourse by means of actualization of functions and potencies of language units. Thus, the functional re-orientation phenomenon is associated both with the process of designation and the process of communication. That is why it is best described by means of meaningful language units, since their functions and potencies are rather wide.

Functionally re-oriented units acquire new pragmatic functions and new features of non-standard nature since they appear to become products of individual creative word-building. Such innovations are not widely used at the current period of language development and are limited to certain contexts. They are based on the individual nature of the cognitive process of “clarification” and demands for a particular communicative situation. Thus, they have a rather limited sphere of usage: I was stone cold sober (E. O’Neill); Oh, Mama, forget it! Who cares? Jamie and I would be bored stiff (E. O’Neill); “Well, I was spitting mad, I ’ll tell you, over losing everything like that ...” (D. Francis); My cousin needed hauling away before he was punch drunk (D. Francis); "... Mr. Lagland says they won’t be paying out until they have investigated further and he was proper sniffy about it...” (D. Francis); We haven’t had anything go wrong with the lift (touching wood) since-ph, not for a good eighteen months (A. Christie).

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