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A short course of lectures
«The handy weather answer book»

What is an "indoor thunderstorm"?What are thermographs and hygrothermographs?What is a contrail?Why do you sometimes see double rainbows?What are waterspouts?How does the hydrologic cycle work?How much rain does it take to make a flood?Besides the 1974 tornado outbreak, what are some other serious outbreaks that have hit the United States?What was the first satellite used for monitoring the weather?What are trade winds?Why is the sunniest place on Earth also the coldest?HUMANITY AND THE WEATHERPLATE TECTONICSWhat are lee troughs and lee depressions?Who first formed the theory about the greenhouse effect?What did the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently say about power plant emissions?Besides rime frost, what other types of frost are there?What other countries also have weather satellites in orbit?What causes turbulence?Why is air pollution in China such a huge problem?How many layers does the Earth's atmosphere contain?What is the mesosphere?Can meteorologists predict tornadoes?What is the Fujita and Pearson Tornado Scale?What is the moist tongue?What are cosmic rays?What is sodar?If neutrinos are so elusive, how do scientists observe them striking Earth?How much ice is there covering Antarctica and Greenland?What is an Ekman spiral?What is seafloor spreading?What is a digital barometer?How does lightning work?What U.S. drought has been the costliest in terms of financial damages?How much pollen is in our air?What is light pollution?Has Doppler radar made tornado forecasting better?What is a fulgurite?What ancient Chinese book first discussed the idea of solar winds?What is diffraction?What is continentality?What are the different types of lightning?Who contributed to early work in plate tectonics?What is irisation?What is a solar flare?What are some other unusual events that saw a sudden increase in temperature in the United States?What is the VORTEX project?What is the Kelvin temperature scale?What causes a tornado?What kinds of courses should I take at the university level?What kind of cloud has been mistaken for a UFO?What is Tornado Alley?What have been the deadliest tropical storms since 1900 in the world? Is there actual salt in sea air?Why don't lakes and ponds freeze solid in the winter?How can I obtain a flood map of my community?How far is it possible to see through the atmosphere?What are major and minor ice age periods?What is the difference between perihelion and aphelion?Why is there an ozone hole at the South Pole but there isn't one at the North Pole?What are keraunophobia and brontophobia?What causes ice ages?What is a gustnado?Who first photographed a sprite?What causes deep ocean currents to flow around the world?When did maps displaying cold and warm fronts first get published in the United States?COSMIC RAYSWhat is refraction?Is there a difference between The Farmer's Almanac and The Old Farmer's Almanac?What is a meteorite?What is the evidence supporting global warming?Who was Paul A. Siple and how is he associated with the concept of the wind chill factor?EARLY WEATHER HISTORY PRECIPITATION What is emergency response planning?Has there ever been a tornado in Los Angeles?How much energy can a hurricane produce?What is an ice storm?What is air pollution?How warm can it get in Antarctica?What is Arctic sea smoke?What is the order of the colors in a rainbow?How do I know if meteorology is for me?What are the Van Allen belts?Who was the first person to seriously study tornadoes?Why is Greenland called green when it is mostly covered in ice?RAINBOWS AND OTHER COLORFUL PHENOMENAWhat is frostbite?Who discovered the ozone layer?What is the windiest place on Earth?What is an acre-foot?What did the Greeks once speculate about the air?CAREERS IN METEOROLOGY Is Earth's atmosphere changing?What place has the most rainy days every year?Who discovered how rainbows form?Which is more deadly: tornadoes or lightning ?What were the glacial and interglacial periods in the last Ice Age?Which continents have the highest and lowest average elevations on the planet?What are some of the most unusually hot temperatures experienced in the United States?What major gases do volcanoes emit?What is the speed of sound?What is a meteor shower?What is a wedge tornado?Does Earth's magnetic field ever change?Who figured out that temperatures rise in the stratosphere?What are TSPs?What is marine forecasting?What is atmospheric physics?What is acid fog?What is dew?Why did the United States refuse to sign the Kyoto Protocol?BLIZZARDS AND AVALANCHES Does all carbon dioxide released as pollution remain in the atmosphere?What is orbital inclination?What should I do in the event of a flood?What was the first organized network of meteorological observatories?Does the Sun have an atmosphere?How hot is lightning?What is a thunderstorm?What is a coronal mass ejection?What is a steam devil?How fast do the strongest hurricane winds blow?What will happen when Earth's magnetic field flips upside down?What is a neutrino?Is the best time to see an aurora during the winter?HEATHow strong does a tornado have to be to be considered "significant"?Why is Earth's magnetic field important to life on Earth?When did the first weather map appear in a newspaper?What are the "dog days" of summer?Which Chinese scholar first hypothesized about climate change?What physical evidence shows that the continents move?What is clear ice?What are halcyon days?Who hires meteorologists?How is wind direction usually measured?What are the stages of a thunderstorm?What is meteorology?What is lidar?What was the air quality like in nineteenth-century London?Who first correctly wrote about the structure of snowflakes?Is there a classification system for snowflakes?What is weather modification?If ozone is good for us, why do we hear about ozone alerts and "bad ozone"?What have been the costliest hurricanes in the United States?OCEAN CURRENTS Is air pollution destroying our architectural history?What are the chances that I will be struck by lightning?ATMOSPHERE BASICS What is the difference between normal rain pH and acid rain pH?How unhealthy is snow shoveling?Is it true that no two snowflakes are exactly the same shape?Is a polar low like an Arctic hurricane?Can a hurricane be stopped?What is NOAA Weather Radio?Does lightning come from ice?FORECASTING How far can a dust storm travel?What are pollution hot spots?What is oceanography?How does air flow around low and high pressure systems?Is there a difference between a forecast of partly sunny or partly cloudy skies?Are there other terms for describing clouds?What is the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC)?How do tides work?NEUTRINOSHow did Earth's atmosphere form?How big do sunspots get?What is a barometer?What was the deadliest tornado ever in the world?Who invented the barometer?Does drinking alcohol truly warm up a person's body?How does the United States compare with China and Russia on energy use and production?What did NASA and the U.S. military discover about triggered lightning?Does wind have a lot of energy that could help reduce the need for fossil fuels?What is the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)?What is Dalton's Law?What is the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP)?What are the major surface and subsurface currents in the oceans?How is hail formed?What is the greenhouse effect?How hot can the human body get and still survive?What are some other types of anemometers?Why do people live in floodplains?What Mie scattering?What is syzygy?How much sunlight is reflected by snow?Why is the thermosphere so hot?What are some other effects of ultraviolet radiation?Has there ever been a hurricane in Great Britain?Who first theorized that human activities were causing climate change?How can I measure how much rain falls where I live?What is the record for the greatest snowfall in the United States?What is the "120 Club"?How is the troposphere defined?What did the continents look like in the past?How strong is Earth's magnetic field?Does the Earth's tilt ever change?Do turtles and frogs have antifreeze in their blood?What's the difference between dew point, humidity, and relative humidity?What is the azimuth?What is aviation forecasting?What is a multiple-vortex tornado?What are monsoons?METEORS, METEORITES, ASTEROIDS, AND COMETSWho first proposed the approach of numerical weather prediction?What is a rain shadow?What is the sunburn index?What is a Chinook?How many times does lightning strike the Earth each year?Who first described the phenomenon of acid rain?How destructive was the Blizzard of 1996?What is the difference between snow and hail?Does the Sun emit a constant amount of energy?What replaced the WSR-57s?What is permafrost?Does rain come in any other colors or is it always clear?Do other objects in the solar system have Van Allen belts?What is La Niña?What are the horse latitudes?Is the Earth's rotation slowing down?Where was the most snowfall ever recorded?Do ocean currents affect coastal weather?How hot can it get on the Earth's surface?What is the average annual number of deaths in the United States caused by tornadoes?Which of America's founding fathers were fascinated by meteorology?What U.S. cities have been wiped out by hurricanes?To what professional societies and organizations should a meteorologist belong?What caused all the flooding in New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina?Is global warming causing deserts to expand?Is carbon dioxide pollution a problem?What measurements do weather satellites provide us?What is plasma?Are all funnel clouds tornadoes?What are some natural sources of air pollution?What is a bishop's ring?What is a thermoscope and who invented it?Why is the sky blue?What are ocean currents?What are the different types of satellites used today?What is Universal Coordinated Time?What factors affect the weather?How did people discover that Earth has a magnetic field?How do sunspots affect weather?I heard that some glaciers in Alaska are growing, not shrinking. Is this true?Is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) involved in weather forecasting?What is tephra?What is inadvertent weather modification?Have neutrinos ever been shown to have hit Earth from somewhere other than the Sun?Can a lightning stroke cause you to burst into flames?How much land disappears when the sea level rises?What is a blue Sun?What is a mare's tail?How are supercooled droplets used for the purpose of cloud seeding?WINDWhat is an aneroid barometer?How is dry ice seeding used to increase visibility at airports?Are wind farms a good way to solve the energy crisis and global warming?What is nuclear winter?Who first proposed the idea of ice ages?What are equinoxes and when do they happen?What did Benjamin Franklin contribute to the science of meteorology?What would happen if a large comet or asteroid impact occurred?What is the National Weather Center (NWC)?What countries are threatened the most from rising sea levels, and may cease to exist in the twenty-first century?What is radar?What is air?What is the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)?Why is it important to understand geography in relation to the weather?What is a harmattan?What is more dangerous, a big tornado with a funnel spanning over a mile in diameter, or a narrow, speedy tornado?About how many tornadoes are recorded in the United States annually?What is a bolide?What do butterflies have to do with chaos theory?THE SEASONS Where is the most humid place on Earth?Am I safe from lightning if I hide indoors?What is a phreatic eruption?What are dust devils?Has the Hudson River ever frozen over?What are the consequences in the United States when there is an unusually cool summer?What is a Nor'Easter?What is heat stroke?Do tornadoes strike in countries other than the United States and Canada?What are black smokers?What happened when Mt. St. Helens erupted?What are evaporation and transpiration?What is long range transport?Who first hypothesized that the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere had something to do with climate change?Are there any circumstances where air pollution could be beneficial?What is convection?Does global warming increase the incidence of diseases?ICE, SNOW, HAIL, AND FROST What are spiral bands?What is a heat wave?What is a 100-year flood?What are some of the worst summers in terms of heat-related deaths that have occurred in the United States?How fast does the seafloor spread?What causes a flood?What is an asteroid?What is the current extent of deforestation?What are some disturbing statistics regarding air pollution in Egypt?Who invented the device to measure humidity?How often do ocean tides occur on Earth?Who is considered one of the most important pioneers in the study of climate change?Why are trees and other vegetation important to the weather and climate?What was the 2008 hurricane season like?What is humidity?How was the existence of neutrinos proven?What is global warming?What is the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)?What is a radiosonde?What is Doppler radar?What is a floodplain?How is Mie scattering different from Rayleigh scattering?Has it ever snowed in Arizona?What are some cloud-to-space forms of lightning that are not considered to be true lightning?What methods have been used to try to remove hazardous fog?Can the relative humidity ever be higher than 100 percent?SUNSPOTS AND SOLAR ACTIVITYWhat is a sunspot?MEASUREMENTS What are the westerlies?CLOUDS AND PRECIPITATIONWhat is a meteor?How did the last Ice Age begin and end?Is air really "thin"?What is a wall cloud?Do any other objects in the solar system have magnetic fields that flip upside down?Who showed that air pressure decreases as altitude increases?How bright is lightning?What city in the United States holds the record for a dry spell?Do people frequently die from lightning strokes?What are some of the coldest temperatures ever recorded in the United States?Can you see a tornado using Doppler radar?What is the difference between absolute humidity and relative humidity?Which country produces the most greenhouse gas?What is POES?What is airglow?Where is the horizon?Is there a sunspot cycle?How many people die in the United States because of avalanches?What is the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale?HURRICANES, MONSOONS, AND TROPICAL STORMSWhat is a sluff?How much water is in the world's oceans?What is bioclimatology?How much do meteorologists earn?Do meteorologists actually have reliable data on tornado wind speeds?How many volts are in lightning?Do other planets in our solar system experience weather?What is Buys Ballot's Law?What is the ideal relative humidity that is the most comfortable for people?What is a photochemical grid model?What is anemophobia?What is a banjo barometer?How fast does the solar wind travel?What is the Storm of the Century?Wasn't 2008 one of the coolest years for the United States?What are the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)?What are supercooled droplets?What is graupel?Who was Cleveland Abbe?Who was the first person to classify clouds?What type of pyranometer does the National Weather Service use?How is asthma related to air pollution levels?What causes a tornado to dissipate?What are the fastest currents in the world's oceans?What is the Landsat Program?What are the 10 snowiest cities in the United States?What is the difference between absolute and specific humidity?What are some other unexpected places where it has snowed in the United States?Why do clouds float?What is the difference between a tornado watch and a warning?How does the Gulf Stream affect the weather of the British Isles and Scandinavia?THE MAGNETIC FIELD What is the tropopause?What newspaper was the first to begin publishing daily weather forecasts?What chemicals are used in thermometers?What is the global average temperature?What is the Air Quality Index?What is "The Doctor"?What is the difference between a National Weather Service advisory, statement, watch, and warning?What month is known for the most extreme changes in temperature?What else does too much Sun do to one's skin?Can weather actually make pollution worse?What was the most important weather book to follow Meteorologica?Who created the first artificial snowflake?What is barometric pressure and what does it mean?How much carbon monoxide is produced in the United States by cars?What is the average temperature of the world's oceans?What is an Alberta clipper?What was the "Little Ice Age"?Is Chicago really the "windy city?"ICE AGESWhat were the fastest winds ever recorded?Is static electricity similar to lightning?What is the purpose of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)?What is a landspout?What has recent sunspot activity been doing?What is a front?What are some other named winds and where are they located?THE SUN What causes avalanches?CLIMATE BASICSWhat are some other katabatic winds called?How is Earth's atmosphere important to life on Earth?What is a geomagnetic storm?Are there other ways that thunderstorms can be described?What happened at Three Mile Island?How is the time set for the beginning of sunrise and sunset?What is wind shear?What are some record snowfalls over a 24-hour period in the United States?What are tides?Can smaller asteroids and comets affect the weather?Do other scientists believe we may be heading for an ice age?How was Abu 'Ali al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham important to meteorology?Can you use snow to keep you warm?AcknowledgmentsHow were the first high altitude photographs of clouds taken?How were the Van Allen belts discovered?How was the jet stream discovered?How tall can thunderstorm clouds be?What is a mesocyclone?What is Gay-Lussac's Law and why is it important in meteorology?What is a meteorologist?What do meteorologists mean when they talk about POP?What is indoor humidity?What is an ice age?What has the National Climatic Data Center reported about average temperatures in 2008?How much water evaporates from the world's oceans?What are microclimates?Where are aurorae seen?How were cosmic rays shown to be charged particles?Is the relative humidity always 100 percent during times when it is raining or snowing?What is industrial forecasting?Is global warming irreversible?Why does lightning flicker?What hurricane names have been retired?How much water is contained in snow?What is a dry front?What is a "white-out"?What are the consequences when glaciers melt?What is El Niño?Why was the name of the Centigrade scale changed to Celsius?Where do cosmic rays come from?HUMIDITYWhat changes in plant and bird behavior are indicating global warming?What is a hook echo?How much drinkable freshwater is there on Earth?What, then, is hydrometeorology?What is the largest known meteorite to strike Earth in the past 100,000 years?What are the two major characteristics of volcanic eruptions?Has lightning ever happened during a snow storm?What is a Sun pillar?What are some of the coldest temperatures measured in Florida?What is the thermocline?How many active volcanoes are there?What is a cloud chamber?What is a low high temperature and a high low temperature?How many people died as a result of the subsequent failure of the levees and flooding after Hurricane Katrina struck?How do I find financial aid to study meteorology?Can people's moods be affected by sunlight?What is the arctic oscillation?What is acid rain?Will there be an ice age in the future?Do wind farms affect the weather?Why do environmental firms hire meteorologists?What will the names of hurricanes be through 2013?What military battle was cancelled because of a mirage?How warm can the weather be and yet have snowfall?What is an ombrometer?Is there weather outside the solar system?What is the hottest place in the United States?What is hypothermia?Does it rain in the Arabian Desert?What is the Milankovic Cycle?How is snowfall measured?What is a Siberian express?How do hurricanes get named?We haven't had a nuclear war (yet), so what sources are creating radiation pollution?How hard is it to become a meteorologist who is a radio or television broadcaster?Are tornadoes often formed in hurricanes?Do all scientists agree that global warming is caused by human beings?How much volcanic activity occurs underwater?Who helped link CFCs to the destruction of the ozone layer?What is eutrophication?What gases and chemicals are considered to have the greatest effect on global warming?What is meant by a trace of precipitation?Why is the Sun essential for weather?What is a tropical storm?What caused the Bhopal disaster?What is a rainbow?Why does the Earth's orbit change from circular to elliptical over time?What is a mauka breeze?Who came up with the idea for volunteer weather observers?Does irrigation of farmland affect the climate?What years have been El Niño years versus La Niña years since 1950?Are hailstones always round?What is a hurricane?What makes the Historia Naturalis important in the history of meteorology?Who were the first people to successfully forecast a tornado?What is the driest place on Earth?How much air pollution does the United States produce?How can a gardener preserve unripe tomatoes before a winter frost?What was the weather like in China in 2008?When are you most likely to see sprites and blue jets?What role did Walter Maurice Elsasser play in discovering the magnetic field?What are some notable record hail accumulations?COLDWhat are some of the erratic behaviors of tornadoes?What is the eye of a hurricane?What is drizzle?What are glaze and rime?Why is it wetter on one side of a mountain range?What is the Intertropical Convergence Zone?How have weather-related forest fires created tragic disasters in the United States?What does a 40 percent chance of rain really mean?How much carbon dioxide am I producing when I drive my car or truck?THE MOONWhat were the major glacial ice ages over time?How far away can thunder be heard?How much pressure does the atmosphere exert upon us?GEOGRAPHY, OCEANOGRAPHY, AND WEATHERWhat are Northers?GENERAL POLLUTION FACTS Where does it snow on the equator?What is the Ring of Fire?Do hailstones have rings?What are the hazards of dust storms?Are the gases in the atmosphere evenly distributed?What is the shape of a raindrop?TORNADOES What is the ICESat mission?What is the difference between a cyclone and a typhoon?Why do meteorologists refer to the Reynolds number when talking about turbulence?How many category 5 hurricanes have there been since 1920?MEASURING TEMPERATURE What is a barograph?How many F5 tornadoes have there been in the United States since 1970?What is the most dangerous U.S. state to live in due to tornadoes?What is wind?What is a January thaw?What are the most extreme barometer readings ever measured?Does lightning only occur during thunderstorms?Do oceans get more rain than land?How is a corona different from a halo?How do some animals appear to be able to predict an oncoming storm?Have hailstones ever proven to be deadly?Where is the best place to hide from a tornado if I'm outdoors?At what temperature does sea water freeze?What do the colors shown on television radars indicate?Can I get a cold from being out in cold weather?How large can hailstones become?What is the heat index?What are the wet bulb and dry bulb temperatures?What are coronas and anticoronas?Who developed the Beaufort Scale?Who else formed theories that ice ages occur in cycles?Who invented the modern thermometer?MODERN METEOROLOGYWhat is atmospheric chemistry?FLOODSRADARWhat are chilblains?Are falling meteors and meteorites dangerous?How much does air pollution damage crops in the United States?How much energy does one bolt of lightning contain?Are there different categories of rainfall?How did the KALPANA-1 get its name?What is a tropical depression?What key event brought the issue of acid rain to prominence?What is the solar spectrum?Who wrote the Meteorológica?What is virga?How did Charles Fabry discover that the ozone absorbs ultraviolet light?What are nacreous clouds?What is a bear's cage?What should I do when a tornado approaches?From where do comets originate?What are the four major cloud groups and their types?What is the mission of NASA's Aura satellite?RAIN, ICE, AND GEOGRAPHY SATELLITESWhat is a fumarole?What are some other sunspot minimums and maximums?What is the snow line?How fast does lightning travel?What could happen if permafrost melts permanently because of global warming?What are VOCs?What is the Clean Air Act?What is inversion?Is it ever too cold to snow?What is a temperature inversion?How clean is rain water?What are atmospheric teleconnections?How do meteorologists classify thunderstorms?How thick is Earth's atmosphere?What is the ozone layer?Which ocean currents are the slowest?What is lake effect snow?What are you seeing when you "see your breath"?Where can I get an education in meteorology?What is a brown cloud?Do we have any evidence of global warming in the past?Why have cyclones striking out of the Indian Ocean proven to be so deadly?Will water supplies be threatened by global warming?What is a comet?How does the wind chill factor affect temperature?What places experience the most annual precipitation on Earth?What is the Maunder Minimum?When adding antifreeze to a car, should you gauge the amount based on expected low temperatures or expected low wind chills?What is the worst avalanche disaster on record?How is rainfall measured?What is evapotranspiration?What is a rope tornado?What is an ENSO-neutral year?At any one time, how many thunderstorms are occurring?What is the difference between a frost and a hard freeze?Do tornadoes always turn counterclockwise?Do large-scale weather patterns lead to season trends?WEATHER FUNDAMENTALSWhat happened in the 1940s and 1950s that gave hope to the science of numerical weather prediction?Can tides influence weather?What are noctilucent clouds?Is the hole in the ozone layer causing frog species extinctions?Who first discovered cosmic rays?What are some other terms using the prefix "iso-" that meteorologists use?What is a heavy snow warning?How fast do hurricanes travel?What is the difference between subvortices and satellite tornadoes?What was the Dust Bowl and what impact did it have on the United States?What two volcanic eruptions had the biggest impacts on the climate in the twentieth century?What is transportation forecasting?Is our climate changing?Why is infrared light from the Sun important?What is radon?How do you calculate how far away a lightning bolt is?What are the types of snowflakes as identified in the International Classification System?How do ocean currents affect weather?How much carbon dioxide is being produced by cars and industrial emissions in the United States?Are there certain times of the day when tornadoes are more likely to happen?How are different types of climates classified?What is the Storm Prediction Center (SPC)?Why is there a hole in the ozone layer?What is smog?How big is the hole in the ozone?What place holds the record for the least amount of rain on Earth?Is it a good idea to open windows and doors so that air pressure is equalized inside a house?When does frost form?How high up does the atmosphere reach?What is an ion?How many people will find themselves in flooded coastal regions should global warming melt the ice caps?What are the cloudiest U.S. cities?How does the magnetosphere help animal behavior on Earth?What is the Wolf Number?What is the National Flood Insurance Program?RADIATIONHow dangerous are heat waves to people?What was the Great Exhibition of 1851?What are near-Earth objects and are they dangerous?Where do haboobs occur?What is lightning?Who was named the United States's first official meteorologist?Is the greenhouse effect a good thing for life on Earth, or bad for the environment?Who first theorized that there was a link between volcanoes and climate?What is a heat burst?What types of psychrometers are there?Has the weather ever been responsible for killing a U.S. president?How did abrupt climate changes in the past come to be called Dansgaard-Oeschger events?Why are there so many discrepancies in the world records of weather?Who first discussed the link between climate change and how gases in the atmosphere absorb heat?What is diamond dust?Have the Great Lakes ever been completely frozen over?What are some of the worst floods in history caused by inclement weather?How long is a lightning strokeWhat is the solar spectrum?Is it possible to forecast space weather?What is fire weather forecasting?Which month is the most dangerous for tornadoes in the United States?How does El Niño occur?ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENAHas there always been an ozone layer?How was the ozone hole discovered?What is a Certified Consulting Meteorologist (CCM)?What is a hectopascal?What is the National Weather Service (NWS)?Where do meteors and meteorites come from?Who first discovered sunspots?What is the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL)?Why does my nose run when I'm cold?What is the difference between climate and weather?What are the different scales of atmospheric motion?Can you see the aurorae during the day?How did lightning cost New York City a billion dollars?How often does an aurora appear?Why was Hero of Alexandria an important figure in the history of meteorology?What places have the lowest annual precipitation on Earth?What is an "air pocket"?Does lightning give off X-rays and radio waves?How is a wet bulb thermometer constructed?Are there ways I can anticipate a tornado?What is chionophobia?Is it true that being hit by lightning can have health benefits?What is the origin of the word "monsoon"?What is a Pulse-Doppler radar?How do meteorologists predict weather using changes in air pressure?What is the ecliptic plane?What is numerical weather prediction?What was Hurricane Katrina?Where are the neutrinos coming from?What is one strange warning sign that lightning may be about to strike?Who managed to calculate cosmic ray activity on Earth dating back over 11,000 years?What is convergence?What is the largest known meteorite to strike Earth in the past 100 million years?How do you convert inches of mercury to millibars?What was the world's worst nuclear disaster?VAN ALLEN BELTS What is a katabatic wind?What is the dew point?Is there a connection between global warming and geology?What is the Kyoto Protocol?What is the difference between the Aurora Borealis and the Aurora Australis?What is heat exhaustion?When do thunderstorms occur?How much pollution is caused by smoking tobacco?What is the National Hurricane Center?Is there much permafrost in the lower 48 U.S. states?What was Hermann Flohn's contribution to climatology?What is the difference between a hurricane watch and a warning?What remarkable observation did science fiction author Arthur C. Clarke make?What part of a hurricane is most damaging?AIR AND AIR PRESSUREWhat was the Perfect Storm?What can I do to help relieve frostbite?What are the different size categories for hailstones?LAYERS OF THE ATMOSPHEREOCEANOGRAPHY AND WEATHER Why do flash floods kill so many people?ORGANIZATIONSWhat is the Enhanced Fujita Scale?What important power source doesn't cause global warming?What is an anticyclone?Can volcanic eruptions affect the global climate?What are growlers?THE OZONE LAYER What is Earth's magnetic field?Why is it impossible to find a pot of gold at the end of a rainbow?What are cooperative weather observers?What causes thunder?Where can I find reliable climate statistics online?What are tornadoes?Is there such a thing as a monochromatic rainbow?What was the "Great Hurricane of 1938"?What is a derecho?How does snow form?What is hydrology?What is weather?What is a GOES?AIR POLLUTIONWhat are the "hail belts"?What is a mirage?What are the Santa Ana winds?Does lightning ever strike twice in the same place?How much of the Earth is usually covered by clouds?How much have disasters cost in recent years to the United States in terms of money and deaths?How can a solar eclipse influence the weather?Does air pressure change as elevation rises above sea level?Does air pollution reach as far as the North Pole?What are the sources of air pollution?STORMY WEATHERHow do factory farms contribute to air pollution?Does it have to be raining for there to be lightning?Where is the rainiest place on Earth?What is a nuclear winter?What is the difference between the ecliptic plane and Earth's equatorial plane?Who was Alexander Buchan?What is the low-level jet stream?How should one prepare when the weather forecast calls for the season's first freeze?What is the Coriolis effect?What is an urban heat island?What did Sir Isaac Newton contribute to the science of meteorology?What is a Campbell-Stokes recorder?What is a cloud?What was the Great Flood of 1993?What is a crepuscular ray?How big can a raindrop get?What are some of the lowest temperatures ever recorded?What is a willy-willy?How much of the Earth was covered in ice during the various ice ages?What is a blizzard?How was seafloor spreading discovered?Does dew fall?Who initially proposed the idea of moving continents?What is the difference between a lunar eclipse and a solar eclipse?What is a Rossby wave?Does the North Pole have the same average temperatures as the South Pole?What are the different specialties within or related to meteorology?What are some benefits of lightning?Can the form of snowflake crystals be predicted?What is the purpose of a snow fence?What are solstices and when do they occur?What do some people fear will occur in December 2012?What is a state climatologist?How is the wind chill calculated?How have dams affected the planet's water cycle in a significant way?What is agricultural forecasting?What months are the most likely times for tornadoes?What is a diurnal temperature range?What does the American Meteorological Society (AMS) do?How many people are killed in the United States by lightning?Can lightning travel through the ground?Was the 2005 New Orleans disaster caused by a flood or a hurricane?Who introduced use of the millibar to measure air pressure?Is global warming causing an increase in severe hurricanes?Can weather be predicted from the stripes on a wooly-bear caterpillar?Hey, wait a minute, weren't scientists warning us of an impending ice age back in the 1970s?How is sea water salinity measured?What is the effect of global warming and climate change on average temperatures?What is a pyranometer?Is carbon dioxide the most harmful global warming gas?VOLCANOESWhat is odor pollution?Can the ozone hole be healed?Has a hurricane ever made landfall in southern California?How is wind speed measured?Has there ever been an F6 tornado?How do radars use the Doppler effect to measure the weather?What is a mackerel sky?What have been the deadliest tornadoes on record in the United States?Is meteorology considered a good career?Has an asteroid ever hit Earth?Are some people allergic to the Sun?What is the lowest temperature possible?How is a storm chaser different from a storm spotter?So, what is the modern theory of plate tectonics?What U.S. cities tend to get the most hail?Who created the first anti-air pollution law in Western history?Are there trees that predict the weather and tell time?How does a lightning rod work?What is a flash flood?What is the Doppler effect?What is an aurora?Why do more people die in cold waves in the American South than they do in the North?CLIMATE CHANGEWhat are the most polluted cities in the world in terms of air quality?Is there such a thing as a megacryometeor?What are ombrophobia and homichiophobia?What is sea-level air pressure?At what point does the sky turn from blue to black?What major energy source is considered to be the cleanest?How much water is there on Earth?What is the "60 Below Club"?HUMANITY'S IMPACT THUNDER AND THUNDERSTORMSWhen does the green flash phenomenon occur?What is a hydrometer?GLOBAL WARMINGIs global warming causing the world's glaciers to melt?What should you do if you are stranded in your car during a blizzard?WEATHER IN SPACEDoes Alaska get hotter than Hawaii?What is the Table Cloth cloud?Are we losing our atmosphere?How is pollution related to weather?What are the requirements for a storm to be considered a severe thunderstorm?How much of the Sun's energy is radiated back into space by the Earth?What happens to the Sun every 22 years?What is the most dangerous month for avalanches?What country can claim to have the worst weather?WATER POLLUTIONHow was the Fahrenheit scale developed?Who are storm chasers?What is a person's circadian rhythm?What is carbon monoxide?What is Saint Elmo's fire?What U.S. cities receive the most sunlight annually?What is the coldest city in America's lower 48 states?Why don't we see hurricanes in the South Atlantic Ocean?What is the most rainfall ever recorded within a one-day period?What is an urban ice slab?What is an aerosol?THE ATMOSPHEREWhere is lightning most likely to occur?Is a halo around the Sun or Moon a sign of rain or snow approaching?If a parhelion is a Sun dog, what is an anthelion?When was the first official storm warning issued in the United States?What are Aitken nuclei?What are cooling degree days and heating degree days and what do they have to do with air conditioning?How does the motion of Earth around the Sun cause the seasons to occur?How much does the entire atmosphere weigh?What is a superior mirage?Does water always freeze at 32°F (0°C)?What caused a temporary but dramatic change in climate in 1816 called the Year without a Summer?What is a hygrometer?When do the seasons start and end?What is the jet stream?Who invented the dew point hygrometer?What is a smog alert?What is a Profiler?What are some other significant air pollutants?How is the ionosphere important in the transmission of radio waves?Does all precipitation reach the ground?How did Mikhail Ivanovich Budyko calculate the temperature of Earth's climate?TERMS TO KNOWDo rainbows ever appear by moonlight?When were the phenomenon of trade winds first explained, and by whom?What is the difference between freezing rain, sleet, and hail?What happens to domesticated animals during blizzards?What is a storm surge?What is the Bruckner cycle?CLOUDSWhat are the National Ambient Air Quality Standards?What is a concentric eye wall?What are some of the highest temperatures recorded?What is sulfur dioxide?How bad was the Blizzard of 1888?What methods do farmers use to protect crops from frost and sudden freezes?What does it mean when we say something is on the lee side of the wind?How loud is thunder?How much time does it take for sunlight to reach the Earth?What is the Fujiwhara effect?What is latent heat?What is the Bergeron-Findeisen mechanism?How long a path do tornadoes typically make?Who should be credited with inventing weather radar?WIND STORMS How do meteorologists come up with percentages predicting the weather?What have been some of the most destructive floods in history?What is albedo?What is paleoclimatology?What petition have thousands of scientists signed that says that global warming is not caused by people?What is an ionospheric storm?Do lakes have tides?How far does the solar wind travel?Did volcanoes play a role in creating Earth's atmosphere?HEAT AND COLDWhat is a solar prominence?What is an isobar?What mineral were scientists surprised to see in high quantities in the stratosphere?What are the two forms of cloud-to-ground lightning?What is a London killer fog?What is a triple point?What is climatology?What standard unit of measurement is used to indicate wind speed?When did radar finally catch on, and who gets the credit?What is a blue moon?How much pollution is generated by airplanes?How wide is a lightning bolt?What is solar wind?How do airplanes create clouds?What was the "Storm that Wouldn't Die"?When did modern weather forecasting begin?Where does it rain the most in the United States?What is precession?LIGHTNINGIf I stand next to a tall object, will I be safe from lightning?Where does the word "tornado" come from?What is Indian summer?Are there other types of tornado-like whirlwinds?What are Sun dogs and Moon dogs?What is the effect of a microburst on aircraft?How do I convert Fahrenheit to Celsius or Kelvin?What is a beaver tail?
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