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A short course of lectures
«The handy weather answer book»

What is a wedge tornado?What is a hurricane?How hot is lightning?How much carbon dioxide am I producing when I drive my car or truck?What is the hottest place in the United States?What is the global average temperature?What is carbon monoxide?What is the largest known meteorite to strike Earth in the past 100 million years?Can people's moods be affected by sunlight?Why does my nose run when I'm cold?When did radar finally catch on, and who gets the credit?What is radar?What causes turbulence?What is a hydrometer?Are hailstones always round?Are tornadoes often formed in hurricanes?How is wind speed measured?What is "The Doctor"?PRECIPITATION Where can I find reliable climate statistics online?Why is Greenland called green when it is mostly covered in ice?What is the National Hurricane Center?What are the major surface and subsurface currents in the oceans?What is precession?How is snowfall measured?What is the purpose of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)?What is a floodplain?At what temperature does sea water freeze?What has recent sunspot activity been doing?How long is a lightning strokeWhat is a meteorologist?What is anemophobia?What is a Sun pillar?How can a gardener preserve unripe tomatoes before a winter frost?Where can I get an education in meteorology?What military battle was cancelled because of a mirage?How much rain does it take to make a flood?Do large-scale weather patterns lead to season trends?What is an "air pocket"?AcknowledgmentsWhat are keraunophobia and brontophobia?What is a heat burst?What is smog?How large can hailstones become?What is inadvertent weather modification?Why is the thermosphere so hot?What have been some of the most destructive floods in history?Why do flash floods kill so many people?What is a bishop's ring?How far can a dust storm travel?NEUTRINOSMEASUREMENTS What is Earth's magnetic field?What is an Alberta clipper?Am I safe from lightning if I hide indoors?What major gases do volcanoes emit?What did the continents look like in the past?Why is it wetter on one side of a mountain range?What is hydrology?What is refraction?What is radon?What is an aurora?How much volcanic activity occurs underwater?What is irisation?What is a Profiler?What is a heat wave?How bad was the Blizzard of 1888?What is eutrophication?How does the motion of Earth around the Sun cause the seasons to occur?What standard unit of measurement is used to indicate wind speed?What is the "120 Club"?GENERAL POLLUTION FACTS How does the hydrologic cycle work?How much water is contained in snow?What are the two forms of cloud-to-ground lightning?What places experience the most annual precipitation on Earth?What is a thermoscope and who invented it?What is the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC)?What is Gay-Lussac's Law and why is it important in meteorology?How is rainfall measured?What U.S. cities have been wiped out by hurricanes?What could happen if permafrost melts permanently because of global warming?What is a mesocyclone?What are the consequences when glaciers melt?What is one strange warning sign that lightning may be about to strike?How tall can thunderstorm clouds be?What is Tornado Alley?What are the horse latitudes?Who came up with the idea for volunteer weather observers?What is the purpose of a snow fence?What is clear ice?What is industrial forecasting?Who was Alexander Buchan?What is a katabatic wind?What is the current extent of deforestation?WATER POLLUTIONWhat is the Intertropical Convergence Zone?What are Sun dogs and Moon dogs?Is a halo around the Sun or Moon a sign of rain or snow approaching?Who wrote the Meteorológica?What is the windiest place on Earth?What does it mean when we say something is on the lee side of the wind?Why do meteorologists refer to the Reynolds number when talking about turbulence?Can the form of snowflake crystals be predicted?Do people frequently die from lightning strokes?AIR AND AIR PRESSUREWhat is the difference between a frost and a hard freeze?What have been the deadliest tropical storms since 1900 in the world? What is wind?Has there ever been a hurricane in Great Britain?What causes a tornado to dissipate?What are some other named winds and where are they located?What are the "dog days" of summer?How much water evaporates from the world's oceans?Is global warming causing deserts to expand?When are you most likely to see sprites and blue jets?How much pollution is caused by smoking tobacco?Why are trees and other vegetation important to the weather and climate?We haven't had a nuclear war (yet), so what sources are creating radiation pollution?What is global warming?What is oceanography?How wide is a lightning bolt?Is Chicago really the "windy city?"What is the Doppler effect?How have weather-related forest fires created tragic disasters in the United States?What is solar wind?What is a harmattan?Can the relative humidity ever be higher than 100 percent?What is a concentric eye wall?What are some other unusual events that saw a sudden increase in temperature in the United States?At what point does the sky turn from blue to black?When were the phenomenon of trade winds first explained, and by whom?What place holds the record for the least amount of rain on Earth?What are some of the lowest temperatures ever recorded?What is Doppler radar?Where is the best place to hide from a tornado if I'm outdoors?What are the two major characteristics of volcanic eruptions?What was the weather like in China in 2008?Does Alaska get hotter than Hawaii?What is the Fujita and Pearson Tornado Scale?What causes ice ages?Is there actual salt in sea air?What is an acre-foot?If neutrinos are so elusive, how do scientists observe them striking Earth?What is diffraction?What have been the deadliest tornadoes on record in the United States?Are some people allergic to the Sun?What is an Ekman spiral?What kinds of courses should I take at the university level?What is La Niña?Does lightning come from ice?Can a lightning stroke cause you to burst into flames?What is a Certified Consulting Meteorologist (CCM)?How is a corona different from a halo?What is a Campbell-Stokes recorder?How big can a raindrop get?How much pressure does the atmosphere exert upon us?How is Earth's atmosphere important to life on Earth?What happens to the Sun every 22 years?What is nuclear winter?Why is there an ozone hole at the South Pole but there isn't one at the North Pole?Is the hole in the ozone layer causing frog species extinctions?THE SUN TERMS TO KNOWHow is a storm chaser different from a storm spotter?What do butterflies have to do with chaos theory?Who discovered how rainbows form?What factors affect the weather?What are supercooled droplets?Will there be an ice age in the future?Who first discussed the link between climate change and how gases in the atmosphere absorb heat?How do you calculate how far away a lightning bolt is?How much does the entire atmosphere weigh?What is an "indoor thunderstorm"?What country can claim to have the worst weather?At any one time, how many thunderstorms are occurring?Which country produces the most greenhouse gas?STORMY WEATHERIs carbon dioxide the most harmful global warming gas?When did maps displaying cold and warm fronts first get published in the United States?OCEANOGRAPHY AND WEATHER What is permafrost?Does the North Pole have the same average temperatures as the South Pole?What is the origin of the word "monsoon"?What is the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL)?What is the solar spectrum?How much water is in the world's oceans?How hard is it to become a meteorologist who is a radio or television broadcaster?How many F5 tornadoes have there been in the United States since 1970?Who are storm chasers?Is there a classification system for snowflakes?What is the greenhouse effect?Who first photographed a sprite?What are growlers?What is sodar?Why is infrared light from the Sun important?Are we losing our atmosphere?What was the world's worst nuclear disaster?What are dust devils?Is air pollution destroying our architectural history?What is convergence?What is a tropical storm?How did Mikhail Ivanovich Budyko calculate the temperature of Earth's climate?What caused all the flooding in New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina?How did Charles Fabry discover that the ozone absorbs ultraviolet light?How is a wet bulb thermometer constructed?How were the first high altitude photographs of clouds taken?What is a banjo barometer?What is a meteor shower?What is the tropopause?What are some other katabatic winds called?Do oceans get more rain than land?THE SEASONS Are there any circumstances where air pollution could be beneficial?How were cosmic rays shown to be charged particles?What is drizzle?What are some notable record hail accumulations?Do other planets in our solar system experience weather?Does water always freeze at 32°F (0°C)?What are the Santa Ana winds?What are some other significant air pollutants?What is air pollution?What happened when Mt. St. Helens erupted?VAN ALLEN BELTS What is a steam devil?Why don't lakes and ponds freeze solid in the winter?What is a mirage?THE OZONE LAYER What is lake effect snow?Is global warming irreversible?What newspaper was the first to begin publishing daily weather forecasts?What's the difference between dew point, humidity, and relative humidity?How much does air pollution damage crops in the United States?Why does the Earth's orbit change from circular to elliptical over time?Who invented the device to measure humidity?What is a bear's cage?How does snow form?How warm can it get in Antarctica?Where do haboobs occur?RADIATIONRADARWhat is a hook echo?What is acid fog?Is it true that no two snowflakes are exactly the same shape?What is a comet?What is the snow line?How big do sunspots get?How was the existence of neutrinos proven?Can weather actually make pollution worse?METEORS, METEORITES, ASTEROIDS, AND COMETSWho showed that air pressure decreases as altitude increases?What was the Great Flood of 1993?What are you seeing when you "see your breath"?What is a meteorite?What is graupel?SUNSPOTS AND SOLAR ACTIVITYWhat did Sir Isaac Newton contribute to the science of meteorology?Can a hurricane be stopped?What is the Milankovic Cycle?Wasn't 2008 one of the coolest years for the United States?What is a 100-year flood?Who was Cleveland Abbe?Where does it rain the most in the United States?What are some of the coldest temperatures measured in Florida?Does it rain in the Arabian Desert?What is continentality?What are halcyon days?What is POES?What is a Rossby wave?When did modern weather forecasting begin?How do I know if meteorology is for me?What are Aitken nuclei?What is a neutrino?What city in the United States holds the record for a dry spell?What is the Table Cloth cloud?How much land disappears when the sea level rises?Is the Earth's rotation slowing down?What are some disturbing statistics regarding air pollution in Egypt?Where are the neutrinos coming from?What is an isobar?Do other objects in the solar system have Van Allen belts?What is evapotranspiration?Who first correctly wrote about the structure of snowflakes?What U.S. cities tend to get the most hail?Can tides influence weather?What are near-Earth objects and are they dangerous?What is the Bruckner cycle?Where do cosmic rays come from?What is humidity?What are glaze and rime?What was the "Great Hurricane of 1938"?VOLCANOESWhat is a triple point?What is a nuclear winter?How does air flow around low and high pressure systems?Why is Earth's magnetic field important to life on Earth?What is numerical weather prediction?What causes thunder?How do meteorologists come up with percentages predicting the weather?What are cooling degree days and heating degree days and what do they have to do with air conditioning?What is the Maunder Minimum?What is a contrail?Where is the rainiest place on Earth?What is the moist tongue?HUMANITY AND THE WEATHERCan I get a cold from being out in cold weather?What methods have been used to try to remove hazardous fog?How is sea water salinity measured?Can volcanic eruptions affect the global climate?What is a sluff?What important power source doesn't cause global warming?Is there a sunspot cycle?What are chilblains?What is a brown cloud?What are the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)?What are the different types of lightning?What is weather modification?HEATWhat causes a tornado?How hot can it get on the Earth's surface?Which continents have the highest and lowest average elevations on the planet?What is the sunburn index?What is a front?Is there a difference between The Farmer's Almanac and The Old Farmer's Almanac?What is a digital barometer?Are there other types of tornado-like whirlwinds?Is there a connection between global warming and geology?What was the most important weather book to follow Meteorologica?What is an ionospheric storm?What are the four major cloud groups and their types?CLIMATE BASICSHow much have disasters cost in recent years to the United States in terms of money and deaths?Does the Sun have an atmosphere?What is a landspout?How many active volcanoes are there?How is dry ice seeding used to increase visibility at airports?What other countries also have weather satellites in orbit?How much do meteorologists earn?Does lightning give off X-rays and radio waves?What is a fulgurite?What happens to domesticated animals during blizzards?Do other scientists believe we may be heading for an ice age?How have dams affected the planet's water cycle in a significant way?What is fire weather forecasting?How is the ionosphere important in the transmission of radio waves?Who helped link CFCs to the destruction of the ozone layer?What were the glacial and interglacial periods in the last Ice Age?ICE AGESWhy do clouds float?Does lightning ever strike twice in the same place?What is a dry front?Can you see the aurorae during the day?What is Indian summer?Does air pressure change as elevation rises above sea level?How is pollution related to weather?What is the difference between a lunar eclipse and a solar eclipse?What is a person's circadian rhythm?What are TSPs?Can the ozone hole be healed?To what professional societies and organizations should a meteorologist belong?What is marine forecasting?What is a Pulse-Doppler radar?Where is the most humid place on Earth?Are there other ways that thunderstorms can be described?What is an anticyclone?What do meteorologists mean when they talk about POP?GLOBAL WARMINGWhat are the requirements for a storm to be considered a severe thunderstorm?What are the hazards of dust storms?How are supercooled droplets used for the purpose of cloud seeding?How does the United States compare with China and Russia on energy use and production?What are cooperative weather observers?What is an ombrometer?Who contributed to early work in plate tectonics?What methods do farmers use to protect crops from frost and sudden freezes?What places have the lowest annual precipitation on Earth?I heard that some glaciers in Alaska are growing, not shrinking. Is this true?Is air really "thin"?What is the Storm Prediction Center (SPC)?Who initially proposed the idea of moving continents?What is the National Weather Service (NWS)?What is climatology?Where does the word "tornado" come from?What is atmospheric physics?From where do comets originate?Does air pollution reach as far as the North Pole?What is a gustnado?What is a thunderstorm?What is atmospheric chemistry?Is there such a thing as a megacryometeor?What are pollution hot spots?What is the lowest temperature possible?Why is the Sun essential for weather?How much drinkable freshwater is there on Earth?What is a derecho?Does all precipitation reach the ground?What major energy source is considered to be the cleanest?Which ocean currents are the slowest?Did volcanoes play a role in creating Earth's atmosphere?How fast does the seafloor spread?Do tornadoes strike in countries other than the United States and Canada?What is a London killer fog?What is the arctic oscillation?What ancient Chinese book first discussed the idea of solar winds?Who managed to calculate cosmic ray activity on Earth dating back over 11,000 years?Why is there a hole in the ozone layer?How warm can the weather be and yet have snowfall?Do rainbows ever appear by moonlight?How much air pollution does the United States produce?What is the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)?What measurements do weather satellites provide us?Can you see a tornado using Doppler radar?WINDWhat is a solar prominence?Do lakes have tides?Does lightning only occur during thunderstorms?Who first formed the theory about the greenhouse effect?How is the time set for the beginning of sunrise and sunset?What are some natural sources of air pollution?Who developed the Beaufort Scale?How is the wind chill calculated?What is a storm surge?Who were the first people to successfully forecast a tornado?If I stand next to a tall object, will I be safe from lightning?AIR POLLUTIONWhat is the difference between absolute and specific humidity?How fast does lightning travel?What is a tropical depression?How many layers does the Earth's atmosphere contain?What else does too much Sun do to one's skin?How many volts are in lightning?What is a low high temperature and a high low temperature?What is meant by a trace of precipitation?Why are there so many discrepancies in the world records of weather?What physical evidence shows that the continents move?What is long range transport?How much carbon dioxide is being produced by cars and industrial emissions in the United States?Can you use snow to keep you warm?What are the different specialties within or related to meteorology?What is a January thaw?Who created the first anti-air pollution law in Western history?Has a hurricane ever made landfall in southern California?What are some other unexpected places where it has snowed in the United States?COLDWhat is the largest known meteorite to strike Earth in the past 100,000 years?Who figured out that temperatures rise in the stratosphere?Has lightning ever happened during a snow storm?What is the worst avalanche disaster on record?What is an ENSO-neutral year?What hurricane names have been retired?How do I find financial aid to study meteorology?Will water supplies be threatened by global warming?Who invented the barometer?What is the difference between subvortices and satellite tornadoes?What is a mauka breeze?What were the major glacial ice ages over time?How were the Van Allen belts discovered?What is a mackerel sky?What was Hurricane Katrina?HURRICANES, MONSOONS, AND TROPICAL STORMSWhat causes a flood?How much energy can a hurricane produce?Where is the horizon?How do tides work?Do all scientists agree that global warming is caused by human beings?What is the Ring of Fire?Who first discovered cosmic rays?What are some of the worst floods in history caused by inclement weather?Is global warming causing the world's glaciers to melt?What happened in the 1940s and 1950s that gave hope to the science of numerical weather prediction?Has an asteroid ever hit Earth?ATMOSPHERE BASICS What are some of the coldest temperatures ever recorded in the United States?Why do more people die in cold waves in the American South than they do in the North?What is the difference between the Aurora Borealis and the Aurora Australis?How many people will find themselves in flooded coastal regions should global warming melt the ice caps?How did people discover that Earth has a magnetic field?What makes the Historia Naturalis important in the history of meteorology?What is the low-level jet stream?MEASURING TEMPERATURE Is the relative humidity always 100 percent during times when it is raining or snowing?What is the mesosphere?What are the National Ambient Air Quality Standards?Do turtles and frogs have antifreeze in their blood?How do some animals appear to be able to predict an oncoming storm?How many people die in the United States because of avalanches?What is an asteroid?What was the Dust Bowl and what impact did it have on the United States?What is the difference between freezing rain, sleet, and hail?What, then, is hydrometeorology?What is a hygrometer?How does the wind chill factor affect temperature?What is the most dangerous U.S. state to live in due to tornadoes?What was the Perfect Storm?What part of a hurricane is most damaging?What are evaporation and transpiration?Does wind have a lot of energy that could help reduce the need for fossil fuels?Is our climate changing?What are nacreous clouds?HUMANITY'S IMPACT EARLY WEATHER HISTORY Does global warming increase the incidence of diseases?When does the green flash phenomenon occur?What is meteorology?Who first proposed the approach of numerical weather prediction?What is the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP)?What U.S. cities receive the most sunlight annually?How many people are killed in the United States by lightning?What is hypothermia?What are some other types of anemometers?How fast do the strongest hurricane winds blow?What is orbital inclination?Who hires meteorologists?What are the stages of a thunderstorm?Have hailstones ever proven to be deadly?What is the difference between a National Weather Service advisory, statement, watch, and warning?What was the Great Exhibition of 1851?What role did Walter Maurice Elsasser play in discovering the magnetic field?What are tides?What is sulfur dioxide?Is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) involved in weather forecasting?What should I do in the event of a flood?Is the best time to see an aurora during the winter?Why do you sometimes see double rainbows?What did the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently say about power plant emissions?Why don't we see hurricanes in the South Atlantic Ocean?What is seafloor spreading?What has the National Climatic Data Center reported about average temperatures in 2008?What are the consequences in the United States when there is an unusually cool summer?OCEAN CURRENTS Who first described the phenomenon of acid rain?What is aviation forecasting?Has there always been an ozone layer?What is airglow?Has there ever been an F6 tornado?When do the seasons start and end?ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENAWhat is Universal Coordinated Time?What causes avalanches?What were the fastest winds ever recorded?What is dew?How many times does lightning strike the Earth each year?So, what is the modern theory of plate tectonics?HEAT AND COLDWhat is NOAA Weather Radio?What is a rainbow?Why is the sky blue?Is the greenhouse effect a good thing for life on Earth, or bad for the environment?What is the difference between a hurricane watch and a warning?What is a blue moon?How can I measure how much rain falls where I live?What are the different types of satellites used today?What are the wet bulb and dry bulb temperatures?How did the KALPANA-1 get its name?What is frostbite?Which Chinese scholar first hypothesized about climate change?Is Earth's atmosphere changing?What months are the most likely times for tornadoes?What Mie scattering?Are there ways I can anticipate a tornado?What are some of the most unusually hot temperatures experienced in the United States?What are some benefits of lightning?What mineral were scientists surprised to see in high quantities in the stratosphere?What is the difference between the ecliptic plane and Earth's equatorial plane?Can weather be predicted from the stripes on a wooly-bear caterpillar?Who was the first person to seriously study tornadoes?What is the coldest city in America's lower 48 states?What is paleoclimatology?Is there a difference between a forecast of partly sunny or partly cloudy skies?What is agricultural forecasting?What are some of the erratic behaviors of tornadoes?What changes in plant and bird behavior are indicating global warming?If ozone is good for us, why do we hear about ozone alerts and "bad ozone"?What is the Storm of the Century?Are the gases in the atmosphere evenly distributed?What is a willy-willy?What are some other terms using the prefix "iso-" that meteorologists use?What are the Van Allen belts?THE MAGNETIC FIELD What are the fastest currents in the world's oceans?What are tornadoes?What is a sunspot?Where do meteors and meteorites come from?What are the westerlies?What did Benjamin Franklin contribute to the science of meteorology?Do hailstones have rings?Why did the United States refuse to sign the Kyoto Protocol?What is a bolide?When was the first official storm warning issued in the United States?What is Dalton's Law?BLIZZARDS AND AVALANCHES What are lee troughs and lee depressions?When does frost form?Who was the first person to classify clouds?What is the eye of a hurricane?What is the Enhanced Fujita Scale?What is the effect of a microburst on aircraft?How much of the Earth was covered in ice during the various ice ages?Are there certain times of the day when tornadoes are more likely to happen?What is a Chinook?What is tephra?How high up does the atmosphere reach?What is the National Weather Center (NWC)?Are there different categories of rainfall?What is the most rainfall ever recorded within a one-day period?WEATHER IN SPACEWhat is heat exhaustion?How much of the Earth is usually covered by clouds?What is the Landsat Program?What are waterspouts?What is the speed of sound?What does a 40 percent chance of rain really mean?Are wind farms a good way to solve the energy crisis and global warming?What caused a temporary but dramatic change in climate in 1816 called the Year without a Summer?What is a radiosonde?How thick is Earth's atmosphere?What is the Clean Air Act?What should I do when a tornado approaches?What is an urban ice slab?How do you convert inches of mercury to millibars?What is the most dangerous month for avalanches?What is an aneroid barometer?What are the types of snowflakes as identified in the International Classification System?What are the chances that I will be struck by lightning?How did Earth's atmosphere form?What is an urban heat island?Who first theorized that there was a link between volcanoes and climate?What is inversion?Who first theorized that human activities were causing climate change?What do some people fear will occur in December 2012?Why do environmental firms hire meteorologists?How does El Niño occur?How are different types of climates classified?What happened at Three Mile Island?What is a state climatologist?What are the different scales of atmospheric motion?What is the solar spectrum?What do the colors shown on television radars indicate?Has it ever snowed in Arizona?Has the weather ever been responsible for killing a U.S. president?What is the difference between normal rain pH and acid rain pH?What is a beaver tail?What is a hectopascal?How hot can the human body get and still survive?ORGANIZATIONSWhat are the "hail belts"?What are some cloud-to-space forms of lightning that are not considered to be true lightning?RAIN, ICE, AND GEOGRAPHY CAREERS IN METEOROLOGY COSMIC RAYSWhy have cyclones striking out of the Indian Ocean proven to be so deadly?What did NASA and the U.S. military discover about triggered lightning?What does the American Meteorological Society (AMS) do?Is it ever too cold to snow?How do meteorologists classify thunderstorms?Does the Earth's tilt ever change?How far away can thunder be heard?What countries are threatened the most from rising sea levels, and may cease to exist in the twenty-first century?How did lightning cost New York City a billion dollars?How far is it possible to see through the atmosphere?What was the first organized network of meteorological observatories?Who first hypothesized that the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere had something to do with climate change?How much water is there on Earth?What is the Bergeron-Findeisen mechanism?CLIMATE CHANGEWhat are the 10 snowiest cities in the United States?What is the Fujiwhara effect?Why is the sunniest place on Earth also the coldest?What is the jet stream?How loud is thunder?How fast do hurricanes travel?How does the Gulf Stream affect the weather of the British Isles and Scandinavia?What is a wall cloud?How strong does a tornado have to be to be considered "significant"?What is the record for the greatest snowfall in the United States?What is the difference between perihelion and aphelion?What are microclimates?What is the average annual number of deaths in the United States caused by tornadoes?How was the Fahrenheit scale developed?What is a cloud?Which of America's founding fathers were fascinated by meteorology?Who invented the modern thermometer?How often do ocean tides occur on Earth?How do ocean currents affect weather?What is the Wolf Number?How fast does the solar wind travel?What is the heat index?What was the deadliest tornado ever in the world?What are trade winds?How is hail formed?How was the ozone hole discovered?Which month is the most dangerous for tornadoes in the United States?How far does the solar wind travel?What is latent heat?What is Saint Elmo's fire?What are atmospheric teleconnections?What is the Kelvin temperature scale?When do thunderstorms occur?What are some record snowfalls over a 24-hour period in the United States?What month is known for the most extreme changes in temperature?What is the ecliptic plane?Does all carbon dioxide released as pollution remain in the atmosphere?What is the difference between absolute humidity and relative humidity?What are spiral bands?What was Hermann Flohn's contribution to climatology?Why is it important to understand geography in relation to the weather?What petition have thousands of scientists signed that says that global warming is not caused by people?How much sunlight is reflected by snow?FLOODSWhat is the mission of NASA's Aura satellite?What are ombrophobia and homichiophobia?What is barometric pressure and what does it mean?Are there other terms for describing clouds?What is chionophobia?How can I obtain a flood map of my community?What is the azimuth?What is a diurnal temperature range?How much ice is there covering Antarctica and Greenland?What is a smog alert?How destructive was the Blizzard of 1996?What are the most extreme barometer readings ever measured?What is the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)?How much of the Sun's energy is radiated back into space by the Earth?What are the cloudiest U.S. cities?What are the sources of air pollution?Have neutrinos ever been shown to have hit Earth from somewhere other than the Sun?What key event brought the issue of acid rain to prominence?Do any other objects in the solar system have magnetic fields that flip upside down?What is the Kyoto Protocol?What was the air quality like in nineteenth-century London?What are ocean currents?What is a blizzard?What was the "Storm that Wouldn't Die"?Which is more deadly: tornadoes or lightning ?Why is it impossible to find a pot of gold at the end of a rainbow?How do airplanes create clouds?What are Northers?What is a rope tornado?What have been the costliest hurricanes in the United States?What is an ice storm?How much carbon monoxide is produced in the United States by cars?Does Earth's magnetic field ever change?What will the names of hurricanes be through 2013?CLOUDSWhat is a barograph?How often does an aurora appear?What is the difference between a cyclone and a typhoon?How did the last Ice Age begin and end?What is lightning?Is meteorology considered a good career?About how many tornadoes are recorded in the United States annually?What is a photochemical grid model?Where is lightning most likely to occur?What is a solar flare?How strong is Earth's magnetic field?Who introduced use of the millibar to measure air pressure?Does drinking alcohol truly warm up a person's body?Do ocean currents affect coastal weather?How should one prepare when the weather forecast calls for the season's first freeze?What is the ozone layer?What is bioclimatology?What chemicals are used in thermometers?What remarkable observation did science fiction author Arthur C. Clarke make?What is Buys Ballot's Law?What place has the most rainy days every year?What is acid rain?What is Arctic sea smoke?Where does it snow on the equator?What are black smokers?Do meteorologists actually have reliable data on tornado wind speeds?How much pollution is generated by airplanes?What should you do if you are stranded in your car during a blizzard?What is a phreatic eruption?How was seafloor spreading discovered?What is a fumarole?What is the dew point?Do wind farms affect the weather?What are some other sunspot minimums and maximums?LAYERS OF THE ATMOSPHEREDoes the Sun emit a constant amount of energy?What is odor pollution?Is it true that being hit by lightning can have health benefits?What is the Air Quality Index?What is a flash flood?What was the first satellite used for monitoring the weather?What are equinoxes and when do they happen?Are there trees that predict the weather and tell time?What is air?THE MOONWhat is the difference between climate and weather?Who should be credited with inventing weather radar?What is an ice age?What replaced the WSR-57s?What are major and minor ice age periods?Who invented the dew point hygrometer?Besides the 1974 tornado outbreak, what are some other serious outbreaks that have hit the United States?What are noctilucent clouds?What is wind shear?How does the magnetosphere help animal behavior on Earth?Have the Great Lakes ever been completely frozen over?What is El Niño?How much pollen is in our air?Hey, wait a minute, weren't scientists warning us of an impending ice age back in the 1970s?What is the ideal relative humidity that is the most comfortable for people?Can lightning travel through the ground?What are cosmic rays?Why was the name of the Centigrade scale changed to Celsius?Is global warming causing an increase in severe hurricanes?What is lidar?What is a Siberian express?What is weather?What is diamond dust?Why was Hero of Alexandria an important figure in the history of meteorology?What two volcanic eruptions had the biggest impacts on the climate in the twentieth century?How do radars use the Doppler effect to measure the weather?Is a polar low like an Arctic hurricane?What is heat stroke?How did abrupt climate changes in the past come to be called Dansgaard-Oeschger events?If a parhelion is a Sun dog, what is an anthelion?What is convection?What is transportation forecasting?What type of pyranometer does the National Weather Service use?How unhealthy is snow shoveling?When adding antifreeze to a car, should you gauge the amount based on expected low temperatures or expected low wind chills?Who was Paul A. Siple and how is he associated with the concept of the wind chill factor?Who discovered the ozone layer?GEOGRAPHY, OCEANOGRAPHY, AND WEATHERWhat is an ion?Who else formed theories that ice ages occur in cycles?What is the thermocline?How does a lightning rod work?Where was the most snowfall ever recorded?What is the Coriolis effect?How much time does it take for sunlight to reach the Earth?What is sea-level air pressure?Besides rime frost, what other types of frost are there?Who is considered one of the most important pioneers in the study of climate change?What is the average temperature of the world's oceans?What is a temperature inversion?How do hurricanes get named?Who created the first artificial snowflake?What types of psychrometers are there?What is light pollution?Is it a good idea to open windows and doors so that air pressure is equalized inside a house?What was the 2008 hurricane season like?What U.S. drought has been the costliest in terms of financial damages?What is a pyranometer?What gases and chemicals are considered to have the greatest effect on global warming?Has Doppler radar made tornado forecasting better?What would happen if a large comet or asteroid impact occurred?How bright is lightning?Where are aurorae seen?How long a path do tornadoes typically make?Can meteorologists predict tornadoes?LIGHTNINGWhat are some of the worst summers in terms of heat-related deaths that have occurred in the United States?What causes deep ocean currents to flow around the world?Does irrigation of farmland affect the climate?What is a heavy snow warning?WEATHER FUNDAMENTALSIs there much permafrost in the lower 48 U.S. states?What is a geomagnetic storm?What can I do to help relieve frostbite?How was Abu 'Ali al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham important to meteorology?How do sunspots affect weather?What are the different size categories for hailstones?What are some other effects of ultraviolet radiation?TORNADOES HUMIDITYWhat is the effect of global warming and climate change on average temperatures?Does it have to be raining for there to be lightning?What is a meteor?What is a blue Sun?Do tornadoes always turn counterclockwise?Who first discovered sunspots?What are thermographs and hygrothermographs?How is the troposphere defined?How clean is rain water?What is a superior mirage?What is a multiple-vortex tornado?What is the driest place on Earth?What is indoor humidity?THE ATMOSPHERECLOUDS AND PRECIPITATIONAre all funnel clouds tornadoes?Is there such a thing as a monochromatic rainbow?Can smaller asteroids and comets affect the weather?How can a solar eclipse influence the weather?PLATE TECTONICSTHUNDER AND THUNDERSTORMSIs there weather outside the solar system?What is a GOES?MODERN METEOROLOGYWhat caused the Bhopal disaster?Does rain come in any other colors or is it always clear?What kind of cloud has been mistaken for a UFO?What is the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)?How big is the hole in the ozone?Who first proposed the idea of ice ages?What is the VORTEX project?What is the "60 Below Club"?What is plasma?What did the Greeks once speculate about the air?Has there ever been a tornado in Los Angeles?What is emergency response planning?What are VOCs?How much energy does one bolt of lightning contain?How is Mie scattering different from Rayleigh scattering?Why does lightning flicker?What is a "white-out"?What are monsoons?How is wind direction usually measured?Is carbon dioxide pollution a problem?How many people died as a result of the subsequent failure of the levees and flooding after Hurricane Katrina struck?How many category 5 hurricanes have there been since 1920?What is a coronal mass ejection?FORECASTING How dangerous are heat waves to people?What is an aerosol?What is the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale?What is the order of the colors in a rainbow?Why is air pollution in China such a huge problem?What is virga?What years have been El Niño years versus La Niña years since 1950?How is asthma related to air pollution levels?What is albedo?What is the difference between snow and hail?What is the difference between a tornado watch and a warning?What is the ICESat mission?What was the "Little Ice Age"?Was the 2005 New Orleans disaster caused by a flood or a hurricane?What is syzygy?What is a crepuscular ray?How was the jet stream discovered?How do meteorologists predict weather using changes in air pressure?Are falling meteors and meteorites dangerous?What is a mare's tail?Has the Hudson River ever frozen over?WIND STORMS How does lightning work?Why do people live in floodplains?When did the first weather map appear in a newspaper?What are coronas and anticoronas?What are solstices and when do they occur?What is more dangerous, a big tornado with a funnel spanning over a mile in diameter, or a narrow, speedy tornado?How do I convert Fahrenheit to Celsius or Kelvin?Is it possible to forecast space weather?Is static electricity similar to lightning?What is a rain shadow?What is a Nor'Easter?What is a barometer?What is the evidence supporting global warming?SATELLITESRAINBOWS AND OTHER COLORFUL PHENOMENADoes dew fall?ICE, SNOW, HAIL, AND FROST What are the most polluted cities in the world in terms of air quality?What is the National Flood Insurance Program?Who was named the United States's first official meteorologist?What are some of the highest temperatures recorded?What is the shape of a raindrop?What is a cloud chamber?What will happen when Earth's magnetic field flips upside down?How do factory farms contribute to air pollution?Do we have any evidence of global warming in the past?
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