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Free Innovation

AcknowledgmentsOverview of Free InnovationThe Free Innovation and Producer Innovation ParadigmsThe free innovation paradigmThe producer innovation paradigmInteractions between the paradigmsThe Need for a Free Innovation ParadigmEvidence for Free Innovation (Chapter 2)Viability Zones for Free Innovation (Chapter 3)Pioneering by Free Innovators (Chapter 4)Diffusion Shortfall in Free Innovation (Chapter 5)Division of Labor between Free Innovators and Producers (Chapter 6)Tightening the Loop between Free Innovators and Producers (Chapter 7)The Broad Scope of Free Innovation (Chapter 8)Personality Traits of Successful Free Innovators (Chapter 9)Preserving Free Innovators' Legal Rights (Chapter 10)Next Steps for Free Innovation Research and Practice (Chapter 11)Evidence for Free InnovationSix National StudiesThe scale of product innovation in the household sectorThe scope of consumer product innovationSpending on Innovation ProjectsSingle vs. Collaborative InnovationIs It Free Innovation?The Nature of Household Sector Innovators' MotivationsSelf-Rewards and Transaction-Free ActivitiesDiscussionThree Innovation ModesViability of an Innovation OpportunityWhen is an innovation opportunity viable for a single free innovator?When is an innovation opportunity viable for a collaborating free innovator?When is an innovation opportunity viable for a producer?Bringing Back Production Costs and Transaction CostsProduction costsTransaction costsHybrid Models of InnovationDiscussionPioneering by Free InnovatorsWhy Free Innovators PioneerEvidence of pioneering by free innovators in whitewater kayakingEvidence of pioneering by scientists in scientific instrumentsWhy Do the Rates of Innovation by Both Free Innovators and Producer Innovators Decline?DiscussionDiffusion Shortfall in Free Innovation“Market Failure" in the Free Innovation ParadigmDiffusion Performance of the Free Innovation ParadigmThree Possible Manifestations of Diffusion-Related Market FailureMarket failure type 1: Reduced general value of free innovators' developmentsMarket failure type 2: Suboptimal investment in designMarket failure type 3: Low diffusion effort by free innovatorsDiscussionExclusion of unskilled adoptersSolution via a market connectionNon-market solutionsThe case for governmental supportDivision of Labor between Free Innovators and ProducersFour Major Interactions between the ParadigmsFree-contested marketsFree-complemented marketsFree spillovers of design information to producersProducers' support for free innovationModeling Producer Strategies to Support Free InnovationModeling the Effects of Free Innovation on Social WelfareDiscussionTightening the Loop between Free Innovators and ProducersVisualizing the LoopTightening the LoopThe Path to CommercializationCrowdsourcingNightscout, a free innovation projectFoldit, a citizen science projectA producer crowdsourcing projectDiscussionThe Broad Scope of Free InnovationTypes of InnovationsFree user innovation in servicesFree user development of process equipment: 3D printersFree user development of a “marketing method": community brandsNew organizational methodsDiscussionPersonality Traits of Successful Free InnovatorsDesign of the StudyStudy MethodsPersonality TraitsStudy FindingsFindings regarding control variablesFindings regarding personality traitsHow Personality Traits Affect the Success of Free Innovation ProjectsDiscussionEncouraging collaborationChanging the nature of innovation tasksPreserving Free Innovators' Legal RightsIndividual Innovators' Legal RightsHow Legislation and Regulation Affect Free InnovationThe Relative Advantage of Free InnovatorsPossible Legislative and Regulatory ImprovementsDiscussionNext Steps for Free Innovation Research and PracticeProposed Next StepsFree Innovation and Related Research “Lenses”Measure Free InnovationIncorporate Free Innovation into Microeconomic TheoryNovel Policymaking for Free InnovationExtending Free Innovation Paradigm Insights beyond Innovative Content

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