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America’s Challenges in the Greater Middle East: The Obama Administration’s Policies

Obama in the Middle East: Failure to Bring ChangeIraq: Policies, Politics, and the Art of the PossibleIraq Policy under Clinton and BushThe Two Phases of U.S. Policy under Bush: “Victory,” 2003-2006A Change in Direction: The Surge and Its Aftermath, 2006-2008Evaluating the Bush Legacy in Iraq: Impact on Long-Term U.S. Regional InterestsObama and Iraq: New Beginnings, Old ProblemsLimitations of the New ApproachConclusionsNotesSaudi Arabia: A Controversial PartnershipThe Evolving AllianceA Meeting at the President's RanchThe Saudis' Resentment LingersA “Hands-Off” U.S. PolicyImproved Atmospherics, Policy DifferencesThe Israeli-Palestinian Dispute and the Creation of Jewish Settlements in the West BankIraqEnergy PolicyInter-Arab PoliticsUncertainties Hinder ConsensusEnter China?The Iran Nuclear IssueConclusionNotesGCC States under the Obama AdministrationU.S.-GCC Relations in ContextThe GCC and the Obama PresidencyThe Dilemma over IranNo Movement on the Middle East Peace ProcessOutlookNotesEgypt: From Stagnation to RevolutionU.S.-Egyptian Relations in PerspectiveRelations during the George W. Bush AdministrationObama Policy Before and after the January UprisingRevolution and BeyondNotesIsrael and the Palestinian Authority: Resigning to Status QuoHand in Glove: The Two-Plus-One OptionPlease, Please, Please Let Me Get What I Want: Under BushThis Charming Man: Obama's New Position and LimitationsBack to the Old House: U.S. Power and the Policy of Change?The Way ForwardNotesThe Maghreb: Strategic InterestsThe United States and the Maghreb: Historical BackgroundThe United States' Bilateral Relations with the Maghreb StatesMoroccoAlgeriaTunisiaLibyaThe Maghreb: Regional Entity within the Framework of American Foreign PolicyObama and the Question of Western Sahara: Continuity or Change?ConclusionNotesSomalia: Unwanted Legacy, Unhappy OptionsThe Inheritance: The Somali Crisis and U.S. Policy up to 2009Somali Policy in the 1990sSomali Policy in the Bush Administration, 2001-2006The Three Pillars: U.S. Policy in 2007-2008Designation of Shabaab as a Terrorist GroupBush Policy and the Somali Piracy EpidemicThe Obama Administration and Somalia: Window of Opportunity?Bad Options and Policy StasisHumanitarian AidSomalia and Domestic Law EnforcementSources of Policy ContinuityU.S. Somalia Policy into the FutureNotesIran: From Engagement to ContainmentGoodwill GesturesHuman Rights and DemocracyMultilateralism and the Nuclear ImpasseChallengesConclusionNotesPakistan: A New Beginning?The Weight of the Bush LegacyBrief Historical BackgroundThe Crisis within PakistanBarack Obama—A Rough BeginningKerry Lugar BillWhere Do We Go from Here?Emerging New Perceptions on the Afghanistan WarWashington's Change of Tone toward PakistanChanging Pakistani PerceptionsConclusionNotesAfghanistan: Grim Prospects?The U.S. Policy ContextThe Limitations of U.S. PolicyInnovation under ObamaLimitations of the Obama ApproachChallenges AheadConclusionNotesCentral Asia: Pragmatism in ActionAn Ambivalent Legacy: U.S. Foreign Policy in Central Asia in the Bush YearsObama at the HelmComing to Grips with Central AsiaConclusionNotesTurkey: A Neglected PartnerCold War Turco-U.S. RelationsPost-Cold War U.S. Policy toward Turkey“Multilateral Father”: George H. W. Bush's Landmark-Event Turkey PolicyBill Clinton and the “Enhanced Partnership”“Unilateral Son”: Rupture of the “Strategic Relationship” under George W. BushBarack Obama and the “Model Partnership”?ConclusionNotesSelected Bibliography

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