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Optical Waves and Laser Beams in the Irregular Atmosphere
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Optical Waves and Laser Beams in the Irregular Atmosphere
Preface
Atmosphere Fundamentals
Structure and Main Parameters of the Atmosphere
The Content of the Atmosphere
Aerosols
Aerosol Dimensions
Aerosol Altitude Localization
Aerosol Concentration
Aerosol Size Distribution
Aerosol Spectral Extinction
Hydrometeors
Fog
Rain
Clouds
Snow
Atmospheric Turbulence
Turbulence Energy Cascade Theory
Characteristic Functions and Parameters of Atmospheric Turbulence
Spectral Characteristics of Atmospheric Turbulence
Non-Kolmogorov Turbulence
References
Basic Aspects of Optical Wave Propagation
Identity of Optical and Radio Waves
Optical Waves Propagation: Deterministic Approach
Main Equations
Propagation of Optical Waves in Free Space
Propagation of Optical Waves through the Boundary of Two Media
Boundary Conditions
Main Formulations of Reflection and Refraction Coefficients
Optical Wave Propagation in Random Media: Statistical Approach
Main Wave Equations and Random Characteristics
Wave Equations
Random Functions and Their Moments
Fourier Transform of Stationary Random Functions
The Cluster Expansion of the Centered Random Function and Its Fourier Transform
Random Equations
Scalar Wave Equation Presentation
Method of Diagrams for Green Function
An Exact Solution of 1D Equation
Random Expansion at Short Wavelengths
Exact Solution of the Scalar Wave Equation
The Electromagnetic Wave Equation
Propagation in Statistically Irregular Media
References
Atmospheric Turbulence in the Anisotropic Boundary Layer
Overview
Introduction in Semiempirical Theory of Turbulence
Local Structure of Turbulence
Semiempirical Hypotheses of the Theory of Turbulence in the Anisotropic Boundary Layer
Main Principles of the Semiempirical Theory of Turbulence
Theoretical Equations for Dissipation Rates of Kinetic Energy e and Temperature N in the Anisotropic Boundary Layer
Experimental Studies of Semiempirical Hypotheses in the Anisotropic Boundary Layer
Measurement Instrumentation
Requirements on the Duration of Observation Sessions
Characteristics of the Measurement Path
General Results of Measurement of Turbulence Characteristics in the Mountain Boundary Layer
Experimental Verification of Local Weak Anisotropy of the Mountain Boundary Layer via the Anisotropy Functions
Effective Isotropic Layer
Outer Scale of Turbulence in the Anisotropic Boundary Layer
Further Development of the Semiempirical Theory of Turbulence in the Anisotropic Boundary Layer
Turbulent Scales of the Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory in the Anisotropic Boundary Layer
Turbulent Prandtl Number in the Anisotropic Boundary Layer
Main Results
Coherent Structures in the Turbulent Atmosphere
Brief Review of the Studies of the Local Structure of Turbulence
Incipient Convective Turbulence: Benard Cells
Models of Temperature Fluctuation Spectra in Incipient Turbulence
Scenarios of Stochastization of Convective Flows
Extension of the "Coherent Structure" Concept: Actual Turbulence
Coherent Structures in Open Air
Coherent and Incoherent Turbulence
Turbulent Characteristics in Coherent Turbulence
Attenuation of Amplitude and Phase Fluctuations of Optical Wave in Coherent Turbulence
Properties of Coherent Structures
Properties of Single-Coherent Structures
Properties of Mixtures of Different Coherent Structures
Numerical Solutions of Navier-Stokes Equations: Visualization of Turbulence
Main Results
References
Nonlinear Propagation of Laser Radiation in the Atmosphere
Generation of Stimulated Raman Scattering of Radiation in a Spherical Microparticle
Basic Equations
Quasistationary Approximation
Thresholds of SRS Generation
Self-Action of Laser Beams in the Atmosphere
Influence of Diffraction on the Stimulated Raman Scattering of Laser Radiation in the Middle Atmosphere
Basic Equations of Forward SRS in the Atmosphere
Analysis of Atmospheric Conditions
Technique of Numerical Calculations
Discussions
Effective Radius of Beams under SRS Conditions
Cascade Excitation of SRS Components
Regularities of Nonstationary Self-Focusing of Profiled Laser Beams: Averaged Description
Evolution Law of Effective Radius of the Optical Beam
Effective Beam Radius at Nonstationary Self-Focusing
Estimating Equations for the Averaged Parameters of Optical Beam at the Nonlinear Focus
References
Peculiarities of Propagation of Ultrashort Laser Pulses and Their Use in Atmospheric Sensing
Lidar Control in Problems of Atmospheric Sensing by Ultrashort Pulses
Effect of Splitting of the Femtosecond Pulse in the Linear Transfer Mode
Theoretical Prerequisites of the Issue
Mathematical Model of Transfer: Monte Carlo Technique
Results of Model Estimation
Transformation of Femtosecond Pulse in Plant Leaf Volume
The Main Formulation of Local Estimations
Conclusions
Estimation of the Efficiency of the Use of Promising White-Light Lidar for Sensing of Optical and Microphysical Parameters of Cloud Aerosol
Optical Equations of the Theory of Multiwavelength Laser Sensing
Iterative Method for Solution of the System of Lidar Equations
Selection of Informative Wavelengths of Laser Sensing
Analytical Methods for Inversion of the Integral Equation
Statistical and Intellectual Methods for Solution of Inverse Problems
Monte Carlo Technique
Genetic Algorithm
Method of Artificial Neural Networks
Comparative Analysis of the Efficiency of the
Modification of Genetic Algorithm
Numerical Experiment on Sensing of Optical and Microphysical Parameters of Clouds Based on the Modified Genetic Algorithm
Summary
Lidar Experiment on the Study of Microphysical Characteristics of Artificial Aerosol at Short Paths
Solution of Inverse Problem with the Genetic Algorithm
Discussion
Assessment of Feasibility of Reconstructing Microphysical Characteristics of Mist with the Use of White-Light Lidars at Short Paths
References
Isoplanarity Problem in Vision Theory
Introduction to the Problem
Algorithm for Statistical Simulation of Pulsed Reactions in Spherical Geometry
Criteria for the Estimation of the Size of Image Isoplanarity Zones
Example of Reconstruction of the Image of Test Object
References
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