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Experiment Design

The experiment consisted of a total of six conditions. Two conditions were used for baseline EEG recordings, i.e., EEG recording before and EEG recording after the mobile usage. The four other conditions were used during listening to a mobile phone call, including two conditions for the right side and two conditions for the left side. Each side (right or left) included two EEG measurements. One measurement was taken when the participant was using the mobile phone very close to his/her ear (touching the ear) while another measurement was taken while the mobile phone was kept 2 cm away from the ear during listening to the phone call. The final measurement was taken after mobile phone usage to measure the brain signals and to detect whether headache or dizziness was experienced after the calls. The EEG measurements were recorded using Emotiv EPOC 16 electrodes, as shown in Fig. 11.1, connected to a PC to show the brain signals.

Experiment Procedure

Each participant was briefed about the experiment and asked to read the informed consent form and subject information. In case of any ambiguity, they were encouraged to clarify with the experimenter. After signing the

Emotiv EPOC 16 electrodes

Figure 11.1 Emotiv EPOC 16 electrodes.

Block diagram of experiment protocol

Figure 11.2 Block diagram of experiment protocol.

consent form, each participant was asked to fill out a questionnaire (see Appendix 11A) to record the history of the participant and the information on mobile phone usage. After filling out the questionnaire, the participant was asked to sit in a relaxed mode in the EEG recording room. The Emotiv EEG kit was prepared and set on the participant’s head per the recommended procedure. The measurements of EEG were recorded for the effect of cell phone use using EEG under six conditions, i.e., before using the cell phone, during the use of the cell phone (4 subconditions), and after using the cell phone; please refer to Fig. 11.2.

The duration of each session was 5 minutes long, and between sessions, participants were given a few minutes for rest. The participants were instructed to remain silent during all the sessions to minimize the artifacts in EEG recordings. The experiment was completed in approximately 1 hour.

Table 11.2 EEG data description

S. No.

File name

EEG description



Five minutes EEG recording before using the mobile phone in rest condition.



Five minutes EEG recorded during phone call at right side without distance.



Five minutes EEG recorded during phone call at right side with distance. The distance is 2 cm.



Five minutes EEG recorded during phone call at left side without distance.



Five minutes EEG recorded during phone call at left side with distance. The distance is 2 cm.



Five minutes EEG recording after completing all the sessions with phone calls. This recording was performed in rest condition.

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