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Culture and Cultural Politics Under Reza Shah: The Pahlavi State, New Bourgeoisie and the Creation o


Features of Reza Shah’s cultural politicsIntellectuals and technocrats: key figures in Iran’s cultural modernizationThe shah: state politics and authoritarian modernizationLife under Reza Shah: new bourgeois culture and other forms of practiced modernityNotesI Intellectuals and technocrats. Key figures in Iran’s cultural modernizationModernization in literary historyThe biographical backgroundA novel concept: stylistics and evolution combinedLiterary history in long-term perspectiveClear but not pure: the ideal use of languageHistory: the Sho‘ubiyeh movementConclusionNotesPolicy or puzzle? The foundation of the University of Tehran between ideal conception and pragmatic realizationGiving birth to the University of Tehran: espousing ideas, one baby with many fathers, a lengthy pregnancy, and a premature childIdeas and conceptsThe Teachers College as the nucleus of the University of Tehran: the contribution of ‘Isa SadiqThe law: the politician ‘Ali Asghar Hekmat makes an appearanceHekmat becomes minister of educationHekmat and SadiqThe committeeThe Majles debatesThe “Golden Label”: on Reza Shah’s motivation and roleNationalization of educationSecularization of the educational systemHighest authorityThe inaugurationWestern ways of thinking meet eastern ways of acting: transfer of knowledge versus realization by pragmatismConclusionNotesMir Mehdi Varzandeh and the introduction of modern physical education in Iran1Biographical sketchVarzandeh and the legacy of traditional physical educationModern physical education in Iran before VarzandehWorld War I and its aftermath in IranDegeneration, moral regeneration, and Swedish gymnasticsEnter Mir Mehdi VarzandehConclusionNotesModernization of Iranian music during the reign of Reza ShahIntroductionIranian music during the Qajar periodThe modern sociopolitical structure of Iranian music during the Reza Shah periodNon-governmental modernizationGovernmental modernizationReview of the degree of acceptance of various standpoints on the modernization of music in Iranian societyConclusionNotesThe king’s white walls. Modernism and bourgeois architectureTabula rasaThe timelessness of historicismThe timeliness of the avant-gardeThe white mausoleumNotesII The Shah State politics and authoritarian modernizationArchaeology and the Iranian National MuseumA quick glance at the history of archaeology and the archaeological institutions in Iran before the rise of Reza ShahArchaeology and the French monopolyThe Antiquities Service (Edareh-ye ‘Atiqat)The Archaeological MuseumArchaeology and archaeological institutions in Iran under Reza ShahThe abolition of the monopoly and its consequencesAndre Godard at the head of Persian Antiquities and his competitorsThe Creation of the Iran Bastan MuseumConclusionNotesDepicting power. Reza Shah’s rule, cabinet politics and the commemorative stamp set of 1935Stamps in Qajar IranStamps and propaganda under the rule of Reza ShahThe stamp set of 1935The men behind the stampsLater stamps of the Pahlavi period - The 1935 set as an iconographic trendsetterConclusionNotesPress censorship in the Reza Shah era, 1925-411The second period: Censorship in the post-Teymurtash eraThe third period: The establishment of the Office of Guidance in WritingConclusionArchival SourcesNotesIII Life under Reza Shah. New bourgeois culture and other forms of practiced modernityDrama and operetta at the Red Lion and Sun. Theatre in Tabriz 1927-41Iranian theatre in the Pahlavi period and the nativist discourse on Iranian dramaTheatre in Tabriz and the building of the Red Lion and SunCultural politics and theatre: Tabriz and the Nezam-nameh of 1306/1928Troupes and ensemblesWhat was on stage? Literature, morality and historyThe audience: Who could afford to go to the theatre?Cultural politics and theatre: Language on stageConclusion: Theatre as part of twentieth-century Iranian entertainment cultureNotes“Newly hatched chickens”. Bozorg ‘Alavi on the young literary scene of the 1930sRoja Dehdarian Formation of the literary circleVis-a-vis the literary establishmentLiterature, social criticism and the Pahlavi stateThe niche for innovationEngagement in the “national project”ConclusionNotesGiving birth to a new generation. Midwifery in the public health system of the Reza Shah eraIranian socio-political conditions and their impacts on the evolution of medicineWomen’s affairs and the cultural policies of Pahlavi IWomen’s health conditions and the establishment of the First Women’s Hospital during the rule of Pahlavi IConclusionNotesEngineering a modern society? Adoptions of new technologies in early Pahlavi IranTechnology and the stateThe modernist approach to technologyThe “common” Iranians and technology - three case studiesTransportationCinemaThe telephoneConclusionNotesReligious aspects in communication processes in early Pahlavi IranTheoretical basisThe involvement of Shi‘i clerics and Sufi orders in policy and their modes of communicationThe role of public religious and popular performancesReligious rhetoric, the satirical communication mode and the pressReligious discourse in Persian literatureConclusionNotes
 
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