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American generosity : who gives and why

Defining GenerosityTheoretical UnderpinningsGenerosity-Related StudiesNeeded Investigations in GenerosityForms of GenerosityOverview of the Science of Generosity InitiativeNationally Representative SurveyGeocoded ResidencesIn-Person InterviewsPresenting Multimodal DataNationally Representative SurveyCase Studies of American GiversThe Approach of This BookThe Organization of the BookUnderstanding American GenerosityA Picture of American Generosity. PARTICIPATION IN GIVING BEHAVIORSSnapshot of American Financial GivingSnapshot of American VolunteeringSnapshot of American Political ActionPicture of Time GivenSnapshot of the “Little 6” American Generosity FormsSummary of the American Generosity PictureCase Study ExcursusCase Studies of the Big 3Case Studies of the Little 6Case Studies of Limited GivingSummarizing the Case StudiesConclusion: The “What” and “HowMuch” of American GenerosityThe Landscape of American Generosity. SOCIAL STATUS AND REGIONAL PATTERNSBig 3 GivingThe “Who” of American GenerosityBig 3 Participation by Social CharacteristicsAbility and Discretionary TimeAssessing the Patterns of DifferencesPutting It All TogetherThe “Where” of American GenerosityLandscape of Financial GivingThe Landscape of VolunteeringThe Landscape of Political ActionThe Landscape of Big 3 Giving CombinedAll Together: The "Who" and “Where” of American GenerosityLooking at the Big PictureThe Landscape of American GenerosityCase Study ExcursusThe Role of Financial ResourcesResidual PovertyThe Role of Time ResourcesThe Role of Religious ResourcesConclusion: The "Who" and “Where” of American GenerosityTypes of American Givers. VARIATIONS IN APPROACHES TO GIVINGGiving ApproachesGiver TypesGenerous Behaviors by Giver TypesFinancial GivingTime GivenCase Study Excursus: Part 1Planned GiversHabitual GiversSelective GiversImpulsive GiversAtypical GiversNongiversThe “Who” of American Giver TypesHousehold Income and College DegreeHousehold Income and Religious AttendanceReligious Attendance and College DegreeCase Study Excursus: Part 2Planned GiversHabitual GiversSelective GiversImpulsive GiversAtypical GiversSummaryConclusion: The “How” of American GenerosityPersonal and Social Orientations to Giving. A SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHA Social Psychological ApproachPersonal and Social OrientationsPersonal OrientationsSocial OrientationsKey Personal and Social OrientationsSeven Principal Social Psychological FactorsOrientations to GenerositySummary of Personal and Social Orientations to GivingCase Study Excursus: Part 1Susan Baker: Upper-Middle-Class “One and Done” Los AngelenoSocial Responsibility (Highest)Collective Conscious (High) and Social Solidarity (Low)Life Purpose (High)Social Trust (Moderate)Prosperity Outlook (Moderate)Acquisition Seeking (Low)Jackie Sawyer: Thrifty, Type-A, Religious, Midwestern MomLife Purpose (High)Prosperity Outlook (High)Social Responsibility (Moderate)Social Trust (Moderate)Acquisition Seeking (Low)Linda Chesterfield: Midwestern Soccer Mom Puts Family FirstAcquisition Seeking (High)Prosperity Outlook (Moderate)Social Responsibility (Moderate)Social Trust (Moderate)Collective Conscious (Moderate)Social Solidarity (Moderate)Life Purpose (Low)Tanika Sandaval: Single Los Angeles Mom Fights for Her Children’s FutureSocial Solidarity (High)Collective Conscious (Moderate)Social Trust (Low)Social Responsibility (Low)Life Purpose (Low)Prosperity Outlook (Low)Acquisition Seeking (Low)Deon Williams: Retiree Living It Up in Detroit in Residual PovertySocial Trust (High)Social Solidarity and Collective Conscious (Moderate)Prosperity Outlook (Moderate)Life Purpose (Low)Acquisition Seeking (Low)Social Responsibility (Low)Anthony Ross: In Between, Regrouping, and Poor in D.C.Life Purpose (Low)Social Responsibility (Low)Social Trust (Low)Acquisition Seeking (Low)Bringing Everyone TogetherGenerous Self-IdentityCase Study Excursus: Part 2Mostly Agree GSIDSlightly Agree GSIDNeutral GSIDSlightly Disagree GSIDGenerous Self-IdentitiesGSID with Orientations, Giver Types, and Giving BehaviorsConclusion: The Why of American Generosity, 1.0Giving Webs of Affiliations. A SOCIORELATIONAL APPROACHThe Puzzle of Generous Self-IdentityThe “Spoke Structure” of AffiliationsAmerican Generosity in Sociorelational ContextWebs of AffiliationsParental Influence to GiveSpousal Alignment on GivingGiving-Supportive FriendsReligious Calls to GiveLocal Community and National Giving ContextAffiliations and Self-IdentityParental Influence and GSIDSpousal Alignment and GSIDGiving-Supportive Friends and GSIDReligious Calls and GSIDLocal and National Contexts and GSIDSummarizing Affiliations and GSIDWebs of Affiliations and Being a GiverWebs of Affiliations and Higher GivingThe Big Picture of the WoA PathsWebs of Affiliation: Key PointsCase Study ExcursusCase Studies in the Five PathwaysRELIGIOUS CALLS (LOW)FRIEND SUPPORT (HIGH)RELIGIOUS CALLS (MODERATE)PARENTAL INFLUENCE (HIGH)SPOUSAL ALIGNMENT (HIGH)FRIEND SUPPORT(HIGH)RELIGIOUS CALLS (HIGH)SPOUSAL ALIGNMENT (HIGH)SPOUSAL ALIGNMENT (NOT APPLICABLE)PARENTAL INFLUENCE (HIGH)RELIGIOUS CALLS (HIGH)COMMUNITY GIVING (HIGH)SPOUSAL ALIGNMENT (DISAGREEMENT)PARENTAL INFLUENCE (HIGH)FRIEND SUPPORT (MODERATELY HIGH)RELIGIOUS CALLS (HIGH)The Pathless CasesFRIEND SUPPORT (MODERATE)PARENTAL INFLUENCE (MODERATELY LOW)FRIEND SUPPORT (MODERATE)SPOUSAL ALIGNMENT AND RELIGIOUS CALLS (NOT APPLICABLE)SPOUSAL ALIGNMENT (HIGH, INCLUDING NOT GIVING)PARENTAL INFLUENCE (MODERATELY LOW)PARENTAL INFLUENCE (LOW)RELIGIOUS CALLS (LOW)FRIEND SUPPORT (LOW)SPOUSAL ALIGNMENT (SURVEY: NOT APPLICABLE, INTERVIEW: HIGH IN NOT GIVING)PARENTAL INFLUENCE (MODERATELY LOW)FRIEND SUPPORT (LOW)The Path Taken (and Not)Putting It All TogetherPutting It All Together, by Type of GiverConclusion: The "Why" of American Generosity, 2.0Circles of Generosity: Targets, Reasons, Identities, and OutcomesImplications of Circles of GenerosityGenerosity InequalitiesGenderRace/EthnicityEducationImplications for ReadersImplications for IndividualsImplications for GiversImplications for ParentsImplications for Spouses/PartnersImplications for FriendsHow to Be a Giver: Practical TipsImplications for PractitionersImplications for Religious LeadersImplications for Generosity-Related Scholars

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