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Notes

  • 1. Carol Blessing, “Exile and Maternal Loss in the Poems of Patricia Jabbeh Wesley,” in Exile and the Narrative/Poetic Imagination, ed. Agnieszka Gutthy. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2010, 77-93 (Blessing 2010).
  • 2. Charles Morrow Wilson, Black Africa in Microcosm. New York: Harper & Row, 1971, 25-30 (Wilson 1971).
  • 3. Ibid., 52.
  • 4. Yekutiel Gershoni, Black Colonialism: The Americo-Liberian Scramble for the Hinterland. Boulder and London: Westview Press, 1985, xi (Gershoni 1985).
  • 5. Ibid., 95.
  • 6. George Klay Kieh, The First Liberian Civil War: The Crises of Underdevelopment. New York: Peter Lang, 2008, 25-29 (Kieh 2008).
  • 7. Melissa Beattie-Moss, “Word of Mouth. The Painful, Joyful Heart: A Conversation with Patricia Jabbeh Wesley.” 2005. http://www.rps.psu. edu/jabbeh/index.html (Accessed October 26, 2012) (Beattie-Moss 2005).
  • 8. Ibid.
  • 9. Hal Herring, “Dreaming of Home: A Conversation with Liberian Poet Patricia Jabbeh Wesley,” Bloomsbury Review, 23.5 (2003): no page. (Herring 2003)
  • 10. James Dawes, “Human Rights in Literary Studies,” Human Rights Quarterly, 31.2 (2009): 395 (Dawes 2009).
  • 11. Richard Kearney, “Narrative and Ethics,” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 70 (1996): 31(Kearney 1996).
  • 12. Susan L. Feagin, “The Pleasure of Tragedy,” American Philosophical Quarterly, 20.1 (1983): 103 (Feagin 1983).
  • 13. Geoffrey Hartman, “The Humanities of Testimonies: An Introduction,” Poetics Today, 27.2 (2006): 249 (Hartman 2006).
  • 14. Primo Levi, The Drowned and the Saved. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988, 199 (Levi 1998).
  • 15. Ibid., 199.
  • 16. Primo Levi, Survival in Auschwitz: The Nazi Assault on Humanity. Trans. Stuart Woolf. New York: A Touchstone Book, 1996, 9 (Levi 1996).
  • 17. Ibid., 9.
  • 18. Nicholas Patruno, Understanding Primo Levi. Columbia, SC: The University of South Carolina Press, 1995, 9 (Patruno 1995).
  • 19. Ibid., 10.
  • 20. Jonathan Druker, “Ethics and Ontology in Primo Levi’s ‘Survival in Auschwitz’: A Levinasian Reading,” Italica, 83.3.4 (2006): 533 (Druker 2006).
  • 21. Ibid., 534.
  • 22. Levi, The Drowned, 15 (Levi 1998).
  • 23. Donald Revell, The Art of Attention: A Poet’s Eye (Minneapolis, MN: Graywolf Press, 2007), 13 (Revell 2007).
  • 24. Ibid., 18.
  • 25. Patricia Jabbeh Wesley, Where The Road Turns. Pittsburgh, PA: Autumn House Press, 2010 (Wesley 2010).
  • 26. Ibid., 56
  • 27. Mark Doty, The Art of Description: World Into Word. Minneapolis, MN: Graywolf Press, 2010, 21 (Doty 2010).
  • 28. Ibid.
  • 29. Patricia Jabbeh Wesley, Where The Road Turns, 7.
  • 30. Patricia Jabbeh Wesley, Becoming Ebony. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2003 (Wesley 2003).
  • 31. Ibid., 8.
  • 32. Ibid., 9.
  • 33. “Muslim” in German.
  • 34. Giorgio Agamben, Remnants of Auschwitz: The Witness and the Archive. Trans. Daniel Heller-Roazen. New York: Zone Books, 1999, 156 (Agamben 1999).
  • 35. Ibid., 156-157.
  • 36. Ibid., 158.
  • 37. Ibid., 158.
  • 38. Wesley, Becoming Ebony (Wesley 2003).
  • 39. Ibid. 27.
  • 40. Patricia Jabbeh Wesley, The River is Rising. Pittsburgh, PA: Autumn House Press, 2007 (Wesley 2007).
  • 41. Ibid., 11.
  • 42. Cited in J. Todd DuBose, “The Phenomenology of Bereavement, Grief, and Mourning,” Journal of Religion and Health, 36.4 (1997): 368 (DuBose 1997).
  • 43. Ibid., 368.
  • 44. Ibid., 370.
  • 45. Ibid., 39.
  • 46. Reuters, “Liberia Troops Accused Of Massacre in Church.” 1990 (Reuters 1990). http://www.nytimes.com/1990/07/31/world/liberia-troops- accused-of-massacre-in-church.html.
  • 47. Ibid., 44.
  • 48. Patricia Jabbeh Wesley, Before The Palm Could Bloom: Poems of Africa. New Issues Press Kalamazoo, Western Michigan University, 1998.
  • 49. Ibid., 20.
  • 50. I am grateful to Patricia Jabbeh Wesley for translating these names and guiding me through Liberian cultures and languages.
  • 51. Jabbeh Wesley, The River is Rising, 34.
  • 52. Jabbeh Wesley, Before the Palm Could Bloom, 9.
  • 53. Wole Soyinka, “Abiku.” www.cafeafrikana.com/poetry.html.
  • 54. Chidi T. Maduka, “African Religious Beliefs in Literary Imagination: Ogbanje and Abiku in Chiuna Achebe, J.P. Clark and Wole Soyinka,” Journal of Commonwealth Literature, 22.1 (1987): 18 (Maduka 1987).
  • 55. Blessing, “Exile and Maternal Loss in the Poems of Patricia Jabbeh Wesley,” 78-79 (Blessing 2010).
  • 56. Jabbeh Wesley, Before the Palm Could Bloom, 33.
  • 57. Ibid., 33-34.
  • 58. DuBose, “The Phenomenology of Bereavement,” 374 (DuBose 1997).
 
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