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  • 1. Donna J. Haraway, “Manifesto for Cyborgs: Science, Technology and Socialist Feminism in the 1980s,” Socialist Review 80 (June 1985): 65-108, on 101; Jay Lemke, “Metamedia Literacy: Transforming Meanings and Media,” in Handbook of Literacy and Technology, eds. David Reinking, Michael C. McKenna, Linda D. Labbo, and Ronald D. Kieffer (Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum), 283-301, on 283.
  • 2. See, for example, Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, trans. Robert Hurley, Mark Seem, and Helen R. Lane (New York: Viking, 1972/1977); Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, trans. Brian Massumi (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1980/1987); Felix Guattari, The Machinic Unconscious: Essays in Schizoanalysis, trans. Taylor Adkins (Los Angeles: Semiotext(e), 1979/2011); Felix Guattari, Chaosmosis: An Ethico-Aesthetic Paradigm, trans. Paul Bains and Julian Pefanis (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992/1995); John Johnston, The Allure of Machinic Life (Cambridge,

MA: MIT Press, 2008); Alistair Welchman, “Machinic Thinking,” in Deleuze and Philosophy, ed. Keith A. Pearson (New York: Routledge, 1997), 211-29.

  • 3. A much more elaborate history and philosophy of machineries can be found in Stephen Petrina, Postliterate Machineries (Unpublished Manuscript, 2012).
  • 4. Deleuze and Guattari, Anti-Oedipus, 1-2, 9, 180, 183, 188, 208, 240; Deleuze and Guattari, “Psychoanalysis and Ethnology,” SubStance 4 (1975): 170-97, on 185-86, 183, 190; “Balance Sheet—Program for Desiring Machines,” Semiotext(e) 2 (1977): 117-35; Deleuze and Guattari, A Thousand; Felix Guattari, “On Machines,” trans. V. Constantinopoulos, Journal ofPhilosophy and the Visual Arts 6 (1995): 8-12; Felix Guattari, “Machinic Heterogenesis,” in Cha- osmosis, trans. Paul Bains and Julian Pefanis (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992), 33-57.
  • 5. William P. Dillingham, ed., Statistical Review of Immigration, 1820-1910 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1911), 84; “Literacy,” Oxford English Dictionary (1888/1908); “Literate,” in An American Dictionary of the English Language, ed. Noah Webster (New York, 1828). Litteratus in Roman antiquity also meant “branded into slavery.” For changes to the New York State Regents Literacy Test and the history of voting literacy tests, see Arthur W. Bromage, “Literacy and the Electorate,” American Political Science Review 24 (November 1930): 946-62; F. C. Crawford, “New York State Literacy Test,” American Political Science Review 19 (November 1925): 788-90, on 789; Cayce Morrison, “New York State Regents Literacy Test,” Journal of Educational Research 12 (September 1925): 145-55; “[Teachers] College News,” “Notes from the Field,” Teachers College Record 26 (1925): 584; J. Edgar Dransfield and Arthur Gates, “A Technique for Teaching Silent Reading,” Teachers College Record 26 (1925): 740-52; “Triumph of the Literacy Law in New York,” Educational Review 31 (January 1924): 40; “A New Literacy Test for Voters,” School and Society 19 (March 1, 1924): 233-38; John R. Voorhis, “An Educational Test for the Ballot,” Educational Review 31 (January, 1924): 1-4. For the history of literacy, see, for example, Jack Goody and Ian Watt, “The Consequences of Literacy,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 5 (April 1963): 304-45; Harvey J. Graff, The Literacy Myth: Literacy and Social Structure in the Nineteenth Century City (New York: Academic Press, 1979); Ivin Illich and Barry Sanders, The Alphabetization of the Popular Mind (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1988); Carl F. Kaestle, “The History of Literacy and the History of Readers,” Review of Research in Education 12 (1985), 11-53; Carl F. Kaestle, Helen Damon-Moore, Lawrence C. Stedman, and Katherine Tinsley, Literacy in the United States: Readers and Reading Since 1880 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1991); Christine Pawley, “Information Literacy: A Contradictory Coupling,” Library Quarterly 73 (October 2003): 422-52; Rene Wellek, “The Attack on Literature,” in The Attack on Literature and Other Essays (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1982); and Raymond Williams, “Literacy,” in Keywords (London, UK: Fontana Press, 1976).
  • 6. Edward L. Thorndike, The Psychology of Learning (New York: Teachers College Press, 1913/1923), 363, 423; Herbert Sanborn, “The Dogma of NonTransference,” Peabody Journal of Education 5 (September 1927): 67-80, on 78. On Kant and faculties of the mind, see, for example, his Critique of Pure Reason and The Conflict of the Faculties, trans. Mary J. Gregor (New York: Abaris, 1798/1979); Jennifer Radden, “Lumps and Bumps: Kantian Faculty

Psychology, Phrenology, and Twentieth-Century Psychiatric Classification,” Philosophy, Psychiatry and Psychology 3 (March 1996): 1-14. For the early history of phrenology, see David Bakan, “The Influence of Phrenology on American Psychology,” Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 2 (1966): 200-220; George Combe, Outlines of Phrenology (London, UK: Longman, 1835); “Phrenology,” North American Review 37 (July 1833): 59-83; and “Phrenology [78 Faculties] and Animal Magnetism,” American Phrenological Journal 4 (September 1842): 275-76. For Herbart’s critique, see Johann Friedrich Herbart, A Text-Book in Psychology, trans. Margaret Smith (New York: D. Appleton, 1816/1891), 36-96, on 92; and G. F. Stout, “The Herbartian Psychology,” Mind 13 (July 1888): 321-38.

  • 7. Francis Bacon, The Advancement ofLearning (New York: Collier, 1605/1902), 89; John Wilkins, “Archimedes or Mechanical Powers,” in Mathematical and Philosophical Works of the Right Rev. John Wilkins, Volume II (London, UK: C. Whittingham, 1648/1802), 98; “Constructiveness—Its Definition, Location, Adaptation, and Cultivation,” American Phrenological Journal 10 (January 1848): 22-25, on 22, 23, 24; “Education and Training Phrenologically Considered: Mechanical Talent and Skill,” American Phrenological Journal 36 (July 1862): 16-17; Herbart, A Text-Book, 46; Maria Edgeworth, Practical Education.
  • 8. “An Authoritative Definition of Manual Training,” Science 13 (January 4, 1889): 9-10, on 10; Calvin M. Woodward, “The Fruits of Manual Training,” Popular Science Monthly 25 (July 1884); 347-57, on 350; G. Stanley Hall, “The Content of Children’s Minds on Entering School,” in Aspects of Child Life and Education (New York: D. Appleton, 1921), 23; Carroll D. Wright, Warren A. Reed, and John Golden, eds., Report of the Commission on Industrial and Technical Education (New York: Teachers College Press, 1906), 5; and Charles Richards, “The Report of the Massachusetts Commission on Industrial and Technical Education,” Charities and the Commons 16 (1906): 334-39, on 334. As one analyst remarked, “The very term ‘manual training’ suggests the now discredited ‘faculty psychology’ with its will-o’-the-wisp of general discipline.” Jesse D. Burks, “Manual Activities in the Elementary School,” Elementary School Teacher 11 (February 1911): 323-28, on 324.
  • 9. Ruth M. Hubbard, “A Measurement of Mechanical Interests,” Pedagogical Seminary and Journal of Genetic Psychology 35 (1928): 229-54; Charles Spearman, “‘General Intelligence’, Objectively Determined and Measured,” American Journal of Psychology 15 (April 1904): 201-92; Edward L. Thorndike, “Intelligence and Its Uses,” Harper’s Monthly Magazine 140 (January 1920): 227-35, on 228; Max Freyd, “The Personalities of the Socially and Mechanically Inclined,” Psychological Monographs 33 (1924): 1-101, on 14; Michael S. Youngblood, “A Nonverbal Ability Test,” Studies in Art Education 20 (1979): 52-63, on 52; Ralph B. Guinness, “Critical Literacy,” Social Education 7 (April, 1943): 165-66; E. R. Purpus, “Scientific and Technical Literacy,” Journal of Higher Education 25 (December 1954): 475-78; Thomas Liao and Emil J. Piel, “Toward Technological Literacy,” Engineering Concepts Curriculum Newsletter 6 (1970): 2-4; Thomas Liao, Emil J. Piel, and John Truxal, “Technology-People-Environment: An Activities Approach,” School Science and Mathematics 75 (1975): 99-108; Engineering Concepts Curriculum Project (ECCP), The Man-Made World (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971). The ECCP was funded by the US National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and

National Science Foundation (NSF). Technological literacy was defined as an understanding of “the nature, the capabilities, the limitations and the trends of technology.” The Man-Made World, despite its sexist title, was quite an amazing text, integrating the themes of technology, people, and the environment into a wide range of activities and lessons.

  • 10. James Collins, “Literacy and Literacies,” Annual Review of AnthropoOgy 24 (1995): 75-93; George Steiner, “Text and Context,” Salmagundi 31/32 (Fall 1975-Winter 1976): 173-84, on 179; Patrick Hartwell, “Grammar, Grammars, and the Teaching of Grammar,” College English 47 (February 1985): 105-27, on 123; and The New London Group, “A Pedagogy of Multiliteracies: Designing Social Futures,” Harvard Educational Review 66 (1996): 60-92. On “new literacy” and “new literacies,” see, for example, Joshua Lederberg, “Digital Communications and the Conduct of Science: The New Literacy,” Proceedings of the IEEE 66 (November 1978): 1314-19; and Brian Street, “New Literacies in Theory and Practice: What Are the Implications for Language Education?,” Linguistics and Education 10 (1998): 1-24. For analyses of this saturation, see Vartan Gregorian, “Education and Our Divided Knowledge,” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 137 (December 1993): 605-611; Vartan Gregorian, “Technology, Scholarship, and the Humanities: The Implications of Electronic Information,” Leonardo 27 (1994): 129-33; and Anne F. Wysocki and Johndan Johnson-Eilola, “Blinded by the Letter: Why Are We Using Literacy as a Metaphor for Everything Else?,” in Passions, Pedagogies, and 21st Century Technologies, eds. Gail Hawisher and Cynthia Selfe (Logan: Utah State University Press, 1994), 349-68, on 360. Counting 197 literacies, Wysocki and Johndon-Eilola ask, “Why aren’t we instead working to come up with other terms and understandings—other more complex expressions—of our relationship with and within technologies?”
  • 11. For definitions of the language faculty, see “Definition of the Faculties According to Their Numbers,” American Phrenological Journal 20 (July 1854): 24. I am included among those helping to proliferate and saturate new literacies. See, for example, Stephen Petrina, “The Politics of Technological Literacy,” International Journal of Technology and Design Education 10 (2000): 181206; Stephen Petrina, “Review of The Civilization of Illiteracy,” Journal of Technology Education 11 (2000): 69-70; Stephen Petrina, “Human Rights and Politically Incorrect Thinking versus Technically Speaking,” Journal of Technology Education 14 (2003): 70-74; Stephen Petrina, Advanced Teaching Methods for the Technology Classroom (Hershey, PA: Information Science, Inc., 2007), 223-50; Stephen Petrina and Ruth Guo, “Developing a Large-Scale Assessment of Technological Literacy,” in Assessment in Technology Education, eds. Marie Hoepfl and Michael Lindstrom (New York: Glencoe-McGraw Hill, 2007), 157-80; and Stephen Petrina, Oksana Bartosh, Ruth Guo, and Linda Stanley-Wilson, “ICT Literacies and Policies in Teacher Education,” in The Emperor’s New Computer, ed. Tony Di Petta (Rotterdam: Sense, 2008), 89109. But also see the analysis of machineries in Karen Brennan, Franc Feng, Lauren Hall, and Stephen Petrina, “On the Complexity of Technology and the Technology of Complexity,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Complexity Science and Educational Research Conference, ed. Brent Davis (2007), 47-73.
  • 12. Sylvia Scribner, “Literacy in Three Metaphors,” American Journal ofEducation 93 (November 1984): 6-21, on 18, 8; Terry Beers, “Commentary: Schema- Theoretic Models of Reading: Humanizing the Machine,” Reading Research

Quarterly 22 (Summer 1987): 369-77; Colin Lankshear and Peter O’Connor, “Response to ‘Adult Literacy: The Next Generation,’” Educational Researcher 28 (January-February 1999): 30-36; Elizabeth Birr Moje, Allan Luke, Bron- wyn Davies, and Brian Street, “Literacy and Identity: Examining the Metaphors in History and Contemporary Research,” Reading Research Quarterly 44 (October 2009): 415-37; Constance A. Steinkuehler, Rebecca W. Black, and Katherine A. Clinton, “Researching Literacy as Tool, Place, and Way of Being,” Reading Research Quarterly 40 (January-March 2005): 95-100; and John M. Willinsky, “The Seldom-Spoken Roots of the Curriculum: Romanticism and the New Literacy,” Curriculum Inquiry 17 (Autumn 1987): 267-91.

  • 13. Walter J. Ong, “Presidential Address 1978: The Human Nature of Professionalism,” PMLA 94 (May 1979): 385-94, on 392; Walter J. Ong, Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word (New York: Routledge, 1982/1988); Walter J. Ong, “Reading, Technology, and the Nature of Man: An Interpretation,” Yearbook of English Studies 10 (1980): 132-49; I. A. Richards, Principles of Literary Criticism (New York: Harcourt), 1; William Carlos Williams, “Author’s Introduction,” Collected Poems of William Carlos Williams, Volume 2 1939-1962, ed. Christopher MacGowan (New York: New Directions, 1944/1964), 54; Theodor Holm Nelson, Literary Machines (San Antonio, TX: Author, 1981/1987); Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, “What Is a Minor Literature?,” trans. Robert Brinkley, Mississippi Review 11 (Winter/Spring, 1975/1983): 13-33, on 18; and Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, Kafka: Toward a Minor Literature, trans. Dana Polan (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1975/1986), 18-19. One machinic literature, see also, for example, Michael Heim, Electric Language: A Philosophical Study of Word Processing (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1987); Jeffrey Masten, Peter Stellybrass, and Nancy Vickers, eds., Language Machines (New York: Rout- ledge, 1997); Brian McHale, “Poetry as Prosthesis,” Poetics Today 21 (Spring 2000): 1-32; and Cicelia Tichi, Shifting Gears: Technology, Literature, Culture in Modernist America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1987).
  • 14. Julien Offray De La Mettrie, Machine Man and Other Writings, trans. Ann Thomson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 39; F. F. Blackman, “Incipient Vitality,” New Phytologist 5 (January 1906): 22-34; Claude E. Shannon and Warren Weaver, The Mathematical Theory ofCommunication (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1949), 31; Norbert Wiener, The Human Use of Human Beings: Cybernetics and Society (London, UK: Free Association Books, 1950/1989), 16; Peter Sanders, “Reading and the English Teacher: Toads Being Good,” English Journal 63 (September 1974): 59-60, on 59; Mortimer Taube, “Documentation, Information Retrieval, and Other New Techniques,” Library Quarterly 31 (January 1961): 90-103, on 92; Lester Asheim, “Introduction: New Problems in Plotting the Future of the Book,” Library Quarterly 25 (October 1955): 281-92; Marshall McLuhan, The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1962), 2, 144; Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (New York: McGraw Hill, 1964), 49, 316; and Karl Marx, The Poverty of Philosophy (London, UK: Martin Lawrence, 1847/1955), 92, 112.
  • 15. Jacques Derrida, Of Grammatology, trans. Gayatri C. Spivak (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976), 158; Jacques Derrida, “Living On: Border Lines,” trans. J. Hulbert, in Deconstruction and Criticism, ed. Harold Bloom (London, UK: Routledge, 1979), 75-176, on 84; and Michel Foucault, The

Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences (New York: Vintage, 1970/1994), 40. Derrida later clarified “that one never accedes to a text without some relation to its contextual opening and that a context is not made up only of what is so trivially called a text.” Jacques Derrida, “Biodegradables: Seven Diary Fragments,” trans. Peggy Kamuf, in Critical Inquiry 15 (1989): 812-73, on 841. To be sure, postmodernism came a bit late, as Saint John had some time ago edited Genesis to shift from Old to New Testament. “In the beginning God created the Heaven and Earth . . .” became “In the beginning was the Word.” Although the word now preceded the flesh in the world, Logos and logos, World and word, still seem coemergent if not interchangeable.

  • 16. Jobs is quoted in J. Markoff, “The Passion of Steve Jobs,” New York Times (January 15, 2008); Gates is ventriloquized by Updike, quoted in Kristof Nyiri, “The Humanities in the Age of Post-Literacy,” Budapest Review of Books 6 (1996): 110-16, on 110; D. Johnson, “Libraries for a Post-Literate Society” (2008): Retrieved February 3, 2010, from http://doug-j ohnson.squarespace .com/blue-skunk-blog/2008/8/13. For “secondary orality,” see Ong, Oral- ity, 136; Illich and Sanders, The Alphabetization, 106-27; and Barry Sanders, A Is for Ox (New York: Pantheon, 1994). For the POB quote, see John Barth, “The Literature of Exhaustion,” in The Friday Book: Essays and Other NonFiction (London, UK: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984), 62-76, on 71.
  • 17. Dave H. Ravindra, Adama Ouane, and Peter Sutton, “Editorial Introduction,” International Review of Education 35 (1989): 383-87, on 383; Dave H. Ravindra, Adama Ouane, and Peter Sutton, “Issues in Post-Literacy,” International Review of Education 35 (1989): 389-408; Sean Regan, “Postmodern Tenor,” AQ: Australian Quarterly 71 (September-October 1999): 6-9, on 8; Nyiri, “The Humanities,” 113; Kristof Nyiri, “Post-Literacy as a Source of Twentieth-Century Philosophy,” Synthese 130 (February 2002): 185-99; and Kristof Nyiri, “The Networked Mind,” Studies in East European Thought 60 (June 2008): 149-58.
  • 18. Lucian, “The Illiterate Bibliomaniac,” in Lucian of Samosata, Volume II, trans. William Tooke (London, UK: Longman, 182), 513-30, on 513; Bacon, Novum Organum, 300; “Review of Good Bye, Sweetheart,” North American R.eview 115 (October 1872): 435-37, on 435. For the death of literature, see Barth, “Literature of Exhaustion”; J. Yellowlees Douglas, The End of Books—or Books without End? R.eading Interactive Narratives (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000), 1-10; Kathleen Fitzpatrick, “The Exhaustion of Literature: Novels, Computers, and the Threat of Obsolescence,” Contemporary Literature 43 (Autumn 2002): 518-59; Welleck, “The Attack”; and Harold Bloom, “Interview with Harold Bloom,” The Charlie Rose Show (Program #2723), PBS WNET (New York, July 11, 2000). On the postmachinic, see Ronnie Lippens, “Imachinations of Peace: Scientifictions of Peace in Iain M. Banks’s The Player of Games'’ Utopian Studies 13 (2002): 135-47, on 146; and Laurence A. Rickels, “Half-Life,” Discourse 31 (Spring 2009), 106-23, on 107, 108.
  • 19. On the postperson, see Kedrick James, “Writing Post-Person: Literacy, Poetics, and Sustainability in the Age of Disposable Discourse” (PhD diss., University of British Columbia, 2008), 3; and Allen Buchanan, “Moral Status and Human Enhancement,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 37 (2009): 346-81. For the cyborg future, see Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline, “Cyborgs and Space,” Astronautics (September 1960): 26-27, 74-76, on 27.
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