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The analyses in this chapter rely on nationally representative household data, collected among 1500 households situated in 100 different communities in Burundi. Data collection was part of the Migration and

Table 2 Reintegration Dimensions for This Study







Proper walls (1 = yes)

No. of rooms/household size

Electricity used for lighting or cooking (1 = yes)

Clean drinking water (1 = yes)

Proper toilet (1 = yes)

Proper wall = cinderblock, brick, stone, concrete, cement, wood, or adobe; wattle and daub Clean drinking water = tap in the household or community or bottled water

Proper toilet = own flush toilet, pit/ latrine private, shared flush toilet


Years of schooling School attendance (1 = yes)

Right grade for age (1 = yes)

Literacy of the household head (1 = yes)

Attended school at least once in the last week (i.e.< Grade 1 =

5- or 6-year-olds; Grade 2 = 6- or 7-year-olds

Health access

Access to hospital (1 = yes)

Access to health clinic (1 = yes)

If needed a hospital or clinic, were they able to access it



Proportion of adults who are employed Number of income sources

Subjective economic situation

Food security (1 = yes) Number of times food aid received in past 12 months Ability to generate money in case of emergency (1 = yes)

Land ownership (1 = yes)

Negative subjective economic situation = finding economic situation difficult or very difficult Food security = never had trouble meeting food needs Ability to generate money in case of emergency = household could obtain $100 USD in case of emergency in a week


Organization membership Household has bank account (1 = yes) Household has savings (1 = yes)

Household has a mobile phone (1 = yes)

If anyone in the household is part of an organization


Table 2 (continued)






Feelings of reconciliation Feelings of justice Feelings of danger Number of hours worked outside the home Number of hours worked inside the home

Main respondent responded on a 1-5 scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree to the following statements:

Feelings of reconciliation = "feels reconciled with atrocities experienced during war"

Feelings of justice = "justice has been done to those who committed crimes during the war"

Feelings of danger = "feels the reoccurrence of conflict in Burundi is a real danger"

Development: A World in Motion project funded by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs and executed by the Maastricht Graduate School of Governance, Maastricht University. The data for Burundi were collected electronically, between January and March 2011, using a standardized questionnaire that was programmed into personal digital assistants (PDAs). Questions on migration were embedded in a multitopic household survey that gathered information on various household characteristics (e.g., income, expenditures, asset ownership, and social capital) and individual characteristics of the household members (e.g., age, level of education, and employment status).

The household data contain information on 7983 individuals, of which 2764 are children between 5 and 18 years of age. For the analyses in this chapter, individuals who resided in the capital of Bujumbura were eliminated from the data to create a more homogeneous sample. As the data showed, return was less common in urban areas—that is, less than 4 % of the individuals were returnees. In addition, for most of these returnees their migration had not been conflict-related. In rural areas, on the other hand, return migration was more common and mostly the result of the various conflict episodes in Burundi. Exclusion of the urban population yielded a sample of 2626 children residing in rural areas.

A first-generation return migrant was defined as a former international migrant who had lived abroad for a consecutive period of at least 3 months and had returned to Burundi with the intention to reside there permanently (see Fransen 2011 for more details). A second-generation return migrant was defined as someone who was born abroad and of which at least one of the parents had had an international refugee experience of at least three months. Of the 2626 children residing in rural areas, 47 (1.79 %) were first-generation return migrants and 128 (4.88 %) were second-generation return migrants. These first- and second-generation returnees resided in 34 and 52 different households, respectively. The following section provides insights into the general characteristics of the returnees under 18 and the households in which they resided.

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