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Terminology clash

Serialization is unfortunately also used in the context of transactions (see Chapter 7), with a completely different meaning. To avoid overloading the word we’ll stick with encoding in this book, even though serialization is perhaps a more common term.

As this is such a common problem, there are a myriad different libraries and encoding formats to choose from. Let’s do a brief overview.

Language-Specific Formats

Many programming languages come with built-in support for encoding in-memory objects into byte sequences. For example, Java has [1], Ruby has Marshal [2], Python has pickle [3], and so on. Many third-party libraries also exist, such as Kryo for Java [4].

These encoding libraries are very convenient, because they allow in-memory objects to be saved and restored with minimal additional code. However, they also have a number of deep problems:

  • • The encoding is often tied to a particular programming language, and reading the data in another language is very difficult. If you store or transmit data in such an encoding, you are committing yourself to your current programming language for potentially a very long time, and precluding integrating your systems with those of other organizations (which may use different languages).
  • • In order to restore data in the same object types, the decoding process needs to be able to instantiate arbitrary classes. This is frequently a source of security problems [5]: if an attacker can get your application to decode an arbitrary byte sequence, they can instantiate arbitrary classes, which in turn often allows them to do terrible things such as remotely executing arbitrary code [6, 7].
  • • Versioning data is often an afterthought in these libraries: as they are intended for quick and easy encoding of data, they often neglect the inconvenient problems of forward and backward compatibility.
  • • Efficiency (CPU time taken to encode or decode, and the size of the encoded structure) is also often an afterthought. For example, Java’s built-in serialization is notorious for its bad performance and bloated encoding [8].

For these reasons it’s generally a bad idea to use your language’s built-in encoding for anything other than very transient purposes.

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