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JSON, XML, and Binary Variants

Moving to standardized encodings that can be written and read by many programming languages, JSON and XML are the obvious contenders. They are widely known, widely supported, and almost as widely disliked. XML is often criticized for being too verbose and unnecessarily complicated [9]. JSON’s popularity is mainly due to its built-in support in web browsers (by virtue of being a subset of JavaScript) and simplicity relative to XML. CSV is another popular language-independent format, albeit less powerful.

JSON, XML, and CSV are textual formats, and thus somewhat human-readable (although the syntax is a popular topic of debate). Besides the superficial syntactic issues, they also have some subtle problems:

• There is a lot of ambiguity around the encoding of numbers. In XML and CSV, you cannot distinguish between a number and a string that happens to consist of digits (except by referring to an external schema). JSON distinguishes strings and numbers, but it doesn’t distinguish integers and floating-point numbers, and it doesn’t specify a precision.

This is a problem when dealing with large numbers; for example, integers greater than 253 cannot be exactly represented in an IEEE 754 double-precision floatingpoint number, so such numbers become inaccurate when parsed in a language that uses floating-point numbers (such as JavaScript). An example of numbers larger than 253 occurs on Twitter, which uses a 64-bit number to identify each tweet. The JSON returned by Twitter’s API includes tweet IDs twice, once as a JSON number and once as a decimal string, to work around the fact that the numbers are not correctly parsed by JavaScript applications [10].

• JSON and XML have good support for Unicode character strings (i.e., human- readable text), but they don’t support binary strings (sequences of bytes without a character encoding). Binary strings are a useful feature, so people get around this limitation by encoding the binary data as text using Base64. The schema is then used to indicate that the value should be interpreted as Base64-encoded. This works, but it’s somewhat hacky and increases the data size by 33%.

  • • There is optional schema support for both XML [11] and JSON [12]. These schema languages are quite powerful, and thus quite complicated to learn and implement. Use of XML schemas is fairly widespread, but many JSON-based tools don’t bother using schemas. Since the correct interpretation of data (such as numbers and binary strings) depends on information in the schema, applications that don’t use XML/JSON schemas need to potentially hardcode the appropriate encoding/decoding logic instead.
  • • CSV does not have any schema, so it is up to the application to define the meaning of each row and column. If an application change adds a new row or column, you have to handle that change manually. CSV is also a quite vague format (what happens if a value contains a comma or a newline character?). Although its escaping rules have been formally specified [13], not all parsers implement them correctly.

Despite these flaws, JSON, XML, and CSV are good enough for many purposes. It’s likely that they will remain popular, especially as data interchange formats (i.e., for sending data from one organization to another). In these situations, as long as people agree on what the format is, it often doesn’t matter how pretty or efficient the format is. The difficulty of getting different organizations to agree on anything outweighs most other concerns.

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