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API support for change streams

Increasingly, databases are beginning to support change streams as a first-class interface, rather than the typical retrofitted and reverse-engineered CDC efforts. For example, RethinkDB allows queries to subscribe to notifications when the results of a query change [36], Firebase [37] and CouchDB [38] provide data synchronization based on a change feed that is also made available to applications, and Meteor uses the MongoDB oplog to subscribe to data changes and update the user interface [39].

VoltDB allows transactions to continuously export data from a database in the form of a stream [40]. The database represents an output stream in the relational data model as a table into which transactions can insert tuples, but which cannot be queried. The stream then consists of the log of tuples that committed transactions have written to this special table, in the order they were committed. External consumers can asynchronously consume this log and use it to update derived data systems.

Kafka Connect [41] is an effort to integrate change data capture tools for a wide range of database systems with Kafka. Once the stream of change events is in Kafka, it can be used to update derived data systems such as search indexes, and also feed into stream processing systems as discussed later in this chapter.

 
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